THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING FLANNEL BOARD IN MASTERING
VOCABULARY FOR THE FIFTH YEAR STUDENT OF
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN THE SCHOOL YEAR 2006-2007
This chapter presents the discussion about (1) Background of the study, (2) Statement of the problem, (3) Objective of the study, (4) Scope and limitation of the study (5) Assumption of the study, (6) Hypothesis of the study, (7) The definition of key term and (8) Significance of the study.
1.1. Background of the Study
In teaching English, teachers are obliged to choose any suitable teaching media in order to achieve the teaching objective easily, so that the student will be motivated to learn more. Teacher who area able to presents the material easily will be students’ idol. In applying teaching media, the teacher should consider many things like teaching material, students’ level, classroom management and many other aspects, because the use in appropriate technique could cause many difficulty or the students and the teachers fail in teaching them and would also be burden for.
In this study, the teacher would like to show a simple and interesting teaching media in presenting vocabulary items to the fifth year student, which is called Flannel Board. As one of language teaching media such as Flannel Board have very significance role to make the teaching and learning activity more interesting. Many example of language teaching and learning English that don’t make the students bored.
Starting from this point, the writer is interested in investigating the using of song in teaching English vocabulary, a study of teaching media at the fifth year student of Elementary School.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
The following problems need to be found out its answer through this particular investigation:
1. Are the Flannel Board effective in teaching English vocabulary?
2. To what extent is the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in teaching English vocabulary?
1.3. Objective of the Study
Based on the research statements this research is aimed at finding out:
1. Whether Flannel Board are effective to teach English vocabulary for the fifth year students in Elementary School.
2. The effectiveness of using Flannel Board in teaching English vocabulary for the fifth year students of Elementary School.
1.4. Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope and limitation of the study are limited to the subject and object of research.
1. The research subject is limited to fifth year students of SDN 3 Tetebatu.
2. The research object is limited on using Flannel Board in teaching English Vocabulary.
1.5. Assumption of the Study
In illustrating above, can be attracts the assumption of the study as follows:
1. The fifth year students of Elementary School are interested in Flannel Board, and Flannel Board media can be motivated the students to master English.
2. By using Flannel Board, the student will be easier in memorizing new vocabulary.
1.6. Hypothesis of the Study
The hypothesis of the recent study is formulated as follows:
The students who are thought by using Flannel Board have greater achievement than those who are not thought by using Flannel Board.
1.7. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation among the readers, it is necessary to clarify some of the terms used in this study.
1. Flannel Board : is a board which is the faced of the board covered by flannel-cloth
2. Vocabulary : is a list of word phrasal usually arrange alphabetically and defined or translated as a lexical or glossary.
3. Effective : having an effect producing the intended result.
4. Mastering : complete knowledge, great skill.
1.8. The Significance of the Study
The significance of the study can be seen from theoretically and practically.
The result of the study may give some information in acquiring new vocabulary by using Flannel Board, this research also inform the English teacher that there are many ways of teaching vocabulary and those can be applied to students as well.
To ask the students to take part more actively in teaching and learning process and give precious experience to the researcher in writing this study for developing creativity either in writing or teaching in the classroom.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
After formulating the problem of the study the researcher arrives at one important process finding some related information.
This chapter discusses (1) Media, (2) Flannel Board, (3) Relevant of the Study and (4) Theoretical Frame Work.
Media is means of expressing massage and information. Hamalik (1986: 23) states that: media is a tool or method and technique used to make the communication and interaction between the teacher and the student in teaching learning process to be more effective. Based on the definition above, it can be concluded that the media relates to technique, method in teaching and learning process.
By media we mean all aids which may be used by teacher and learner to attain certain education objectives. We shall restrict ourselves in some respect in our treatment of media which may be used in FLT, only those media which have a direct contribution to make to teaching/learning process will be discussed. We shall also restrict ourselves to the use of media in the classroom.
Various consideration have traditionally led people to advocate the use of media in FLT, as Schilder in Edward (1977) point out in his study of the history of media use, there was and still is a consensus as the usefulness of media. The developments that have taken place have changed little in the respect. These developments can be attributed on the one hand to the technological innovation which continued to expand the range of reliable and accessible media and on the other hand to change in linguistic, psychological and didactic insight: another important factors is constituted by the changes in educational itself, e.g. with respect to objectives and curricula and the role played by FLT in them.
Given the above definition, media can be specified in different ways, Erdemengerin Edward (1979: 24) list a number of points of view from which media can be considered:
1. The nature of information conveyed by the media (i.e. linguistic and non linguistic information).
2. The channel of information (auditory, visual, or audiovisual media).
3. The phrases in the process of teaching, and testing (are they used for the presentation and exploitation of learning material of for testing).
4. The didactic function (are they used to motivate learners to convey information or to stimulate free language use)
5. The degree of accessibility and adaptability (Mindt, 1978, Macht and Sctolossbaer, 1978, Heaton, 1979: 39).
6. The possibilities for supporting, supplementing or replacing the teacher (Ahrens, 1980).
7. The use of media by individual or groups.
The General Principle in Using Media
There are some general principles in using media; the first principle is that the media and the method should complete each other, they can not stand by it self. Media supports the application of one method, and the method needs a media to convey the method. This is accordance with the second principle that a certain media is more appropriate to be used in conveying a unit of lesson, a lesson may be running well, when a particular media is applied, while the same media might not be used to teach other lesson unit. In fact, not all media is appropriate, which could be used in all teaching learning process. (Rahmatullah, 1998: 12)
The Importance of Using Media
Media for teaching is a media that can be used to help the students in their study, in order to make the teaching learning process more effective and efficient. By using media, the material is more interesting concrete and easier to understand.
One of the roles of media is to attract the student’s attention and to deliver the information. There are various kinds of media, but visual are the appropriate media for young learner. According to Wright (1989) states that, in making decision to use the media, the teacher need to ask three out five basic questions: 1) is it easy for us to prepare? 2) Is it easy to organize in the classroom? 3) Is it interesting to the students? The three criteria can be applied by any teacher including teachers for beginners.
There are various kinds of visual which can be effectively used by the EFL teacher in their classroom. Teacher of young learner have to use some visual in their teaching activities to facilitate their teaching. In general, some of the visuals are: 1) still pictures, 2) reality, 3) drawing or teacher drawing, 4) chart, poster, cartoons, and 5) real objects.
Some school have already equipped with modern media, such as radio video tape material. In this case, songs, stories, poems and dialogue are invaluable in teaching foreign language. Many kinds of supplementary material can be place in media. EFL teacher use media in their English class learning, so in SMP/SMA students will be learning the foreign language through the concept example of things found in the real world, and the advantages of using media instructional media for EFL classes:
- It is arouses student’s interest
- It gives more opportunity for the students to use the language.
- It attracts student’s attention.
- It adds a pleasure variety to English learning.
Flannel board is a board which is the one faced of board covered by flannel-cloth and in this face we can touch many kind of picture and give the students some contributions to rich the vocabulary mastery.
Flannel Board as Media in Teaching Vocabulary
One of media in teaching English is Flannel Board. The effort of the linguist has strong basic because the learner entertained with their everyday life, give chances to the student to more creatively because Flannel Board as media in teaching English vocabulary is very effective and more interested because the students will be memorized the vocabulary without any because the enjoying the picture in the flannel. So that using Flannel Board in teaching vocabulary will give achievement acquiring English.
Flannel Board can increase motivation to learn the English for the students. They also have to add advantage of being memorable the words much less likely that the students will forget the words, and therefore the language practice in it, whereas language practice in even well constructed drill is usually very quickly forgotten and finally, Flannel Board which helps to bring the students memorize more words.
The Function of Flannel Board
There are many functions of puzzle in the teaching of vocabulary given by linguists. The function of Flannel Board could be divided into four kinds, such as:
a. To enlarge vocabulary
b. To increase vocabulary
c. To deepen vocabulary
d. To ice break vocabulary
Relevant of the Study
The research that has relation to this study is the research conducted by Nurhaji (1998). He investigates on the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in increase the vocabulary in motivate speaking achievement, in the school MA NW Pancor 1997/1998.
The problem of this study is to what extent is the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in teaching vocabulary?
The result of the analysis shoed the mean score of the experimental group was 6,95 and the control group was 4,25. It can be concluded that the main score of experimental groups is higher than the main score of control group. It means that the Flannel Board significance in teaching English vocabulary. The similarities of this research it the research dealing with vocabulary that have been conducted by some researcher.
This study investigates the use of Flannel Board in teaching English vocabularies. The theoretical framework applied deal with the concept of Flannel Board in teaching vocabularies. Moreover English media like Flannel Board supports the student’s ability in memorizing vocabulary. Flannel Board can stimulate the learner to practice his language skill.
Based on the statement above, since Flannel Board may help the teacher and student to get new vocabularies likewise, the writer wants to investigates the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in mastering vocabulary for the fifth year students of Elementary School in the school year 2006-2007.
This chapter deals with research design, population and sample, data collection and data analysis.
3.1. Research Design
Concerning with the object of this research “The Effectiveness of Using Flannel Board in Mastering Vocabulary for the Fifth Year Student of Elementary School in the School Year 2006-2007” this research categorized as experimental research because this research appeared the symptoms a purposely, as Arikunto (1998) states that “meted experiment adalah metode dengan sengaja mengusahakan timbulnya variable-variabel dan selanjutnya dikontrol untuk dilihat pengaruhnya terhadap prestasi belajar”. Furthermore the aim of this research is to know the effectiveness of using Flannel Board in mastering vocabulary, so this research has hypothesis. The writer will use the experimental and control group, where the experimental group will be treated by using Flannel Board and control group will be treated without media. The writer also has written the instructional design and prepared test for pre-test and post-test. The instructional will be given to the two groups, they will be given pre-test and post-test after four meetings instruction the students will be given post-test by sing the same tests. The designs of two groups are as follow:
Table: 3.1. The pre-test and post-test design
E: Experimental group
C: Control group
X: Treatment toward experimental group with using songs.
3.1.1. Population and Sample
The population of the study is the whole classes of the fifth year students of Elementary School in SDN 1 Tetebatu and SDN 3 Tetebatu in the school year 2006-2007. Population as stated by Arikunto (1998: 115) that the whole of the subject research is called population research. It is in line with encyclopedia of educational evaluation and he (1998: 115) also states that a population is a set of all elements possessing one or more attributes of interest.
Based on the last definition about the population, can be taken the conclusion that the subject at all the study is all of the student which have the same characteristic and will be investigated through this research. The population of this study is al of students at fifth year student that is divided into two groups.
The Member of Population
Number of Subject
SDN 1 Tetebatu
SDN 3 Tetebatu
To determine the sample of the study, the writer will take what Arikunto (1998: 107) suggested that sample is a part of representative of population that are examined or investigated. Furthermore, she also states that if the population less than 100, the whole numbers of population must be taken. But if the populations are more than 100, it can be taken between 10-15%, 20-25% or more than it.
Then the researcher referred to this theory by taking all of the students in the fifth year students are the sample of the study, because both of each, so, the sample
3.2. Data Collection
To find data of this study, the writer will apply regularly instruction to the subject for three months, where the experimental groups will be treated by using songs and control group will be treated without using media in teaching English vocabulary. The steps will be used to find out the data are follows:
1. The researcher will give the test for students.
2. The researcher will ask the students to do the test individually and carefully on certain given time.
3. The student’s paper-sheet will be submitted.
4. The student’s result is treated as the data of study.
3.3. Data Analysis
To analyze the data obtained, the writer will process the scores by the following. The steps: the writer will calculate deviation between pre-test and post-test of experimental and control group.
The mean deviation score of experimental group:
The mean deviation score of control group:
regarding to the table of computation of student’s deviation of experimental group and control group, the writer finally find out the correlate of two scores by using t-test as follows:
M: Mean deviation of each group
N: Number of subject (the experimental group)
X: Deviation between pre-test and post-test (the control group)
a – b. Nx + Ny = 2 (Degree freedom) (Suharsimi Arikunto, 1998: 306)
And then, the criterion will be used is as follow:
1. If t-test (tt) > t-table (to) in significant rank of 0,05, Ho (null hypothesis) is accepted. It means that the rates of Mean Score of the experimental group is higher than the control group.
2. If t-test (tt) < t-table (to) significant rank of 0,05, Ho (the null hypothesis) is rejected, it means that the rates of the Mean Score of the experimental group is lower than the control group.
Anderson, Jonathan. et.al. 1984. A Practical Guide. Sydney: McGraw Hill Book Company.
Anthony, Edward. 1974. Approach Method and Technique. New York: Oxford University Press.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1993. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktis. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi. 1997. Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris: Tehnik, Strategi, dan Hasil Penelitian. Malang: IKIP Malang Press.
Coleman, Hywel, et.al. 1997. Teaching English to University Undergraduates in the Indonesian Context: Issues and Developments. Bandung: ITB Press.
Cunnong, Allan. 1981. Evaluating and Selecting EFL Teaching Material. Jakarta: Australia Language Center.
Dakin, Julian. 1973. The Language Laboratory and Language Learning. London: Longman Group Inc.
Depdikbud. 1999. Penyempurnaan Kurikulum Bahasa Inggris 1994. Jakarta: Depdikbud.
Hadi, Sutrisno. 1988. Methodology Research. Jakarta: Andi Offset.