THE USES OF BROCHURES AND PAMPHLETS IN TEACHING SPEAKING: A CASE STUDY AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF MADRASAH ALIYAH DARUL MAHMUDIEN N.W. MONTONG GAMANG
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2009 / 2010
A. Background of The study
There are new appreciations in teaching and learning styles. The students often have the unique in learning styles, for example: making pictures and sentences in brochures and pamphlets. This particular community comes to classes and effort to have some perceptions on how to encourage the different individuals in be come familiar for learning styles and presented the materials.
It is commonly happened to every body that certain educational levels should be familiar to the different students; it means that the students who come from different background. For example, social background, economic, level of competence, interests. These phenomena emerges the teacher’s brain and as the basic consideration on how she must spend her time and powers to understand these differences and try hard to recognize the substance of phenomena of this complexity life.
However, some insights of individual differences apply to make an intelligent carrier choice. Because the students learn in such different ways and differ so much in what they already know and need to learn. The teacher’s role needs to give only sketchy guidelines here, because it is understandable that the teacher carrier is to share her vicarious experiences under regular guiding by reflection have the real encounter of the harmonious society.
Regarding the communication process, especially oral communication in which Hendry Guntur Tarigan (1986: 8) in his book “Menulis sebagai suatu keterampilan berbahasa “, (writing as a language skill/called as direct communication is done verbally from the communicator to his partner (interlocutor) in a two –way inter course.
Furthermore, the teacher of language classroom efforts to pay much attention to the student’s capability in speaking the target language in contrary, previously the student in the language classroom are emphasized on the acquisition of linguistic structures or vocabularies, and as a result, the students may know the rules of language usage that will be unable to use the language.
Fortunately, nowadays the students are challenged and rewarded to cope the sufficient knowledge for the sake of their ability in speaking of target language. Means that, firstly, they are challenged by speaking English fluently, for example, when the students could fluently express his desires, ideas, thought or willingness by using the target language, so all at once he may easily learn the listening, reading and writing skills accordingly. Secondly, they felt rewarded when they understood that by mastering the English orally they might get pleasant and intelligent carrier choices beyond the complex and the modern society.
To cove the students who have the definite capability, specifically, in speaking the target language. The teacher in the language classrooms tries hard to involve themselves, the students and all of their resource mentally and physically gains interest in learning the target language. For one common thing, an imaginative and creative professional teacher stimulates the student’s interest with various kinds of vicarious experiences “learning –by-doing”, for example by asking the students to have field trip, camping, recreation, picnic etc. Another, presenting the materials with miscellaneous interesting and fascinating strategies, approaches and techniques in teaching introduces the students with worth while or powerful media such as television, radio, videos, tape recorder or OHP (over head projector ) and even, easy, -made-media for the schools which cannot effort to pay, because they are unreasonable in finance (Sadiman, et.al 1986: 8).
Brochures and pamphlets are two types of media which can be easily obtained whenever or wherever in the market, even on the trees along the road, on the walls and in any instance which familiar to public relation and advertising or promotion center.
Starting from those above phenomena the writer in this particular writing intends to investigate the effectiveness of brochures and pamphlets about restaurant, hotel, and travel as a media of teaching used to encourage the student’s speaking in oral presentation of the second semester students of Madrasah Aliah NW Darul Mahmudien in Academic year 2009/2010.
B. Statement of The Problem
This recent investigation is aimed at finding out the answer of the following question:
a) “Does the use of Brochures and Pamphlets effective in teaching Speaking?
b) What factor promote Brochures and Pamphlets effective in teaching Speaking?
C. The Purpose of The Study
The general purpose of this investigation is to find out some possibles language instructional media applicable for language teacher. Especially, this simple investigation is aimed at finding out the effectiveness of brochures and pamphlets in teaching speaking.
D. The Assumptions of the Study
The research conducted is based on the following assumptions, that:
1. The population of this study has approximately similar experiences in learning English.
2. Brochures and pamphlets are applicable media in teaching oral presentation (speaking) of Madrasah Aliah NW Darull Mahmudien.
3. The instrument of data collection and data analysis is considered valid enough to get the data needed.
E. Significance of The Study
Hopefully, the research would be of some uses to:
1. Encourage the application of visual aids as an easy made media for language instructions.
2. Encourage the use of brochures and pamphlets for language teaching and learning, whether for speaking activities or in introducing other language skills.
3. Give a considerable suggestion to language teacher to create one easy made - media and possible applicable visual medium for language instruction.
F. Scope of the Study
The scope of this investigation to be discussed in this writing is limited to the following points:
1. The study is limited to the effectiveness of brochures and pamphlets of (restaurant, hotel, and travel) in teaching speaking students at Madrasah Aliah NW Darul Mahmudien.
2. This investigation administered at the second year students of Madrasah Aliah NW Darul Mahmudien in Academic year 2009/2010.
3. The brochures and pamphlets as media of teaching in this study are talk about the information about tourism in Lombok West Nusa Tenggara.
G. Definition of The Key Terms
To avoid possible misunderstanding and misinterpretation about the variables are involved in this particular present study, the following definition are put for words:
1. Use, in longman dictionary of contenporary english is the ability of right to used something (Quirk, 1978: 1210). The word use here refer to teacher using Brochures and Pamphlets in teaching speaking.
2. Brochures and Pamphlets
“Brochures is a small thin book (Booklet, pamphlets) especially one giving instructions or details of a service offered, from money, holiday brochures”, (Quirk, 1978: 127)
“Pamphlets are a small book with paper covers which deals usually with some matters of public interest”, (Quirk, 1978: 789).
Brochures and Pamphlets in this study as the media of teaching speaking.
3. Teaching Speaking
Teaching is to give someone knowledge or to train someone; to instruct (Quirk, 1978: 1137).
The term “Speaking” itself refers “to utter words with ordinary speech, modulation, talk “or” to express one self engage in discussion, converse, talk, to recognize another, be on good term” (A Jost, 1993: 1486).
In this study teaching speaking refer to process of transferring knowledge of converse and how to express one idea, thought, desires and willingness into good pattern and ordinary speech used to talk or recognize another by the English teacher in Madrasah Aliah NW Darul Mahmudien to the students under to guidance of brochures and pamphlets media.
H. The Hypothesis of The Study
Hypothesis is a tentative answer towards a watchfulness problem, until proved from data that gathered.
Alternate hypothesis (Ha) of this recent study is a hypothesis that states a relationship between experimental treatments that the research expects to emerge. On the other hand, he continues that the null hypothesis (Ho) that a hypothesis which is states no relationship exists between the experimental treatments (Arikunto 1992: 71).
So in this particular investigation the alternate hypothesis is stated which sound that:
“Brochures and Pamphlets are effective in teaching Speaking students of Madrasah Aliyah Darul Mahmudien N.W Montong Gamang ”.
For the sake of statistical computations, the alternate hypothesis (ha) above needs to be changed into null hypothesis (Ho).Which reads:
“Brochures and pamphlets are not effective toward the students speaking students of Madrasah Aliyah Darul Mahmudien N.W Montong Gamang”.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Educational Media at a Glance
1. Media in Nature
These days, many people have written about the “system Approach” to instruction and instructional planning. Many experimental programs have been conducted in a majority of the fields of the curricula, each following a “system approach” or “systematic planning” in nearly every case, media are regarded as central elements in the approach to systematic instruction.
In the media discussion, another phrase that represents a stage in the evaluation of knowledge about teaching. “Instructional technology”. However, not many years ago media were called “Audio-Visual Aids”. These were physical things-tools for instruction. In more recent years, chalkboards, audio materials, such as tape recorder, telephone facilities, and radios and oven more recently, television and computers have appeared where students are learning.
These many technological resources for instruction have taken their places among the products of another technology-printing various materials on paper. For one unacquainted with the term “Instructional technology”.
The following definition is may be useful and worth considering as quoted from Brown et al (1977: 2).
Instructional technology goes beyond any particular medium or device.
In this sense, instructional technology is more than some of parts. It is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in term of specific objectives .Based upon research in human learning and communication and human and non human resources to bring about more effective instruction.
This definition implies that is constantly for improvement of instruction. Systematic planning and the wise and skillful use of the products of technology are basic prerequisites.
This media can be all kinds of the “Bridge” which could transpose the message from the message sender to message receiver (Soeparno 1987: 1). However, in this particular writing, it is wise to think about the educational media, or educational audio-visual aids.
The media in the classroom wisely expected to bring the messages or information from the resource (teacher) through several channels (visual, Audio-visual, sense and performance) to the receiver (students or a group of students) (Soeparno 1987: 3).
In this case, the role of the teachers are passive, they only help when they needed, and give feed back on learners’ progress based on the test results.
Discussion on ways to use educational media usually stress on the need to be consistent with instructional objectives with what the teacher wants students learn from experiences that media provide (Brown et al 1977: 67).
Furthermore, Syahdan (1986: 67) wrote in his Master Project that another type of instructional material is that which is selected and adopted by the instructor to suit the already established instructional strategies. The instructors role depends on how independent of the instructor the material are: when the materials are instructor dependent, the instructor will provide guidance and they provide any instruction contained in the strategy but not contained in the materials.
On the other hand, Arief Sadiman et al (1986: 4) complained that the teacher or instructor or may be the trainers are not particularly as learning resources. However, they are only sources of learning “Directly”, hence, indirectly; the learner actively creates the harmonious interaction with media or any other learning sources. Meaning that the teacher or instructor just has one of a great number of some other learning sources in which probably could help the students learn or get information of knowledge.
In conclusion, the media which are effort by the teachers in language classrooms are functioned as the “bridge” used by the source to transmit the information to receiver. In other words, educational media are used by the teacher to transfer the knowledge to their students. These transmission process should be, of course, be done in an acceptable and improbable way. Where the learners as could gain the knowledge which they do not know yet to support their previous perspectives. Indeed, the instructor should apply an intelligible strategy.
2. Selecting, Classifying, Using and Producing Media
The effective instruction requires careful planning. Teaching with instructional media is certainly no exception to this educational truism. Because, besides his efforts in providing the harmonious climate classroom with exciting and applicable media, he also should take into consideration his strategy, approach, the learner’s characteristics, objectives to be learned and other physical condition surroundings using of media effect significantly the results obtained.
The following parts, the writer tends to clarify several-important teacher’s duties in his efforts to apply a fascinating and practicable media in the classrooms.
Accordingly, the writer will discuss phases of selecting, classifying, using and producing media.
a. Principles of media selection.
One question arises, what medium or media that is suitable to apply in delivering the materials. Syahdan (1986: 47) administered that media selection is challenging because it is related to the characteristic of the learners, the setting, the content appropriateness and the cost.
According to him, firstly, the ages of the learners should be taken into account of consideration, this particular thing to be the point also for Robert F Mager (1986: 36). That there must be a match between the characteristics of the learners and the content of the learning material and its presentation.
Brown et al (1977: 73) also recognized that the teacher in selecting the materials or media must be aware that the students’ experiences, presences, in interest and capabilities, and learning styles are like influences results of using media.
Secondly, the selection of media should be related to the behavior the learners are expected to be able to identify the major components of a projector, for example, the teacher may use real objects, or even use pictures and diagrams when real objects are not available.
To the same extent, Less Donaldson and scanner Edward (1979: 87) pointed out that size of the media and shape of the room is worth to be considered in selecting media. They wrote as the writer condensed from them that, when training session are held in motels, hotels or other sites away form the teacher own training facilities, a host of problem may surface.
Thirdly, it happens quite often that the cost factor is neglected. People are eager to apply advanced technologies, be May more attractive to learners, but when measures in term of effectiveness, the difference is not really significant. Moreover, advanced technology requires healthy budged, good administration and qualified personals (Syahdan 1986: 48).
Relevance to the cost factors, Less Donaldson and Scanner Edward (979: 87) also proposed that although most market agencies have multitude of audio aids available, few department provide a total inventory of everything the educators may need with the increasing use of television, many trainers have found it economical to purchase this equipment. The same things come to Brown et al perspectives that the cost of one media should be accounted. They stated that as a professional educator the teacher may be asked to assist in assessing and evaluating media for firstly, single-school purchases for classroom use or for placement in the school media center. Secondly, system wide purchases of items intended for specified types of schools, especially opening day collections for new schools.
In conclusion, actually there are many others worthy considering things for the educators in selecting or choosing media for their effective instructional, such things listed by Brown et al (1977: 75) for example, content, purposes, and appropriateness technical quality, circumstances of use, learner’s very fiction and validation. Meanwhile, scanner and Donaldson (1979: 88) also listed several consideration in choosing the media of instruction, for example session objectives, group size the teachers preferences, session content, audio visual assistance and portability.
b. Principles of Classifying Media.
Soeparno (1987: 11) wrote that media classification can be done through three broad criteria, namely, based on it’s characteristics, based on it’s dimensional presentation and based on it’s utilize.
Firstly, based on it’s characteristic, John Bretz in his taxonomy (1982) in Soeparno (1987: 11) and in Arief Sadiman et al (1986:20) came up that media have five criteria or main characteristics, namely, sound, motion, line, pictures and written. Moreover, some media has specific single characteristic and some others have multiple characteristics.
Media which have single characteristic for example, radio tape recorder (sound) slide (pictures), reading box (written), and reading machine (written).
These characteristic of media is difference from the point of view of different experts, Arief Sadiman (1986: 26) classified media into two broad categories namely, big media (based on its cost, sophisticate and setting) and another characteristic is little media (based on its cost, easily obtained, can be manipulated, and simple.
Another expert views in classifying the media in different perspectives. Soeparno (1987:5) classified the media into ten broad categories namely, verbal symbol, verbal visual, verbal and visual.
c. Principles in using media
The urgency the teacher and his students feel for access media resources relates closely to the setting, and viability of the instructional program. The teacher’s media needs will be considerably different in a more open classroom that is responsive to various changes of student’s interest and that encourages individualization or learning.
Having either selected, modified, or designed his materials, the teacher, then, must plan how the materials will be used and how much time will spend using them.
Next, prepare the class and ready the necessary equipment and facilities, then presents the materials into a harmonious and fascinating classroom (Robert F Mager 1986: 35).
Moreover, Brown et al (1977: 62) suggested five steps in language classroom activities when the teacher needs to handle the classroom with his powerful media.
Firstly, media in introduction, to start unit a topical study is the time for the teacher and his students to examine or develops objectives. The introductory phases, however, is also the time for a systematic review of options for uses of media or media related of activities that will be undertaking through out the various of the study.
Secondly, media in development, students will be encouraged in his phase to seek and used a variety of media relevant to their studies. This case will be highly produced the student’s interest and leads to the development of questions suggesting new direction for exploration (Brown et al 1977: 64).
Thirdly, media in organization is the time to assemble ideas or information derived from previous research. And also to bring together the results of individual investigation to produce a coordinated, integrated whole.
Another, media in summarizing, is to provide the students opportunities to communicate results of work completed.
And the last is media in evaluation, is the time for the students to take stock to see what they have learned and to understand how they changed as a results of study.
d. Principles in media producing.
As the writer stated before that some media cannot be adopted by a teacher into his instruction. This possibility caused by some factors such as cost, size and session objectives and the like.
To overcome this problem, an imagination and creative teacher can design or make his own instructional media according to his preferences.
Syahdan (1986: 87) listed out eleven steps in developing and producing instructional media (materials). These steps are as follows:
(1) Re- examine the strategy you plan for each objectives
(2) review the literature and consult the subject matter specialist to find out the existing materials
(3) think about some possibilities of adapting the existing materials
At this point, two chokes may be taken, and you may develop materials for instructor a manuals, or you may take notes when you revise the presentation and activities. Based on your notes, you can develop the instructor’s guide”.
To the same extent, Robert F Mager (1986: 49) listed several worthy considerations for the teaching who wants to design own materials of instructions. These consideration, namely, objectives, (what the students wants to learn), audience (the character of the learner and their pre- requisite knowledge), cost (sufficient money), technical expertise (the teacher’s own materials should be made by himself. professionally), equipment, (to product new equipment or design. available for preparation or use The materials, and the last is time, (afford to spend whatever time to design the materials or to produce it which comes to his mind).
B. Brochures and Pamphlets as Educational Media
Discussion about the English instruction, generally, we heard the complications about fatal failure of the English teacher in conducting their teaching learning process in a harmonious balanced classrooms. One of the big problems faced is the application of educational aids or educational media which is inappropriate with that the students needs, objectives are stated, or even the teacher’s himself preference (Mariana Karim and Fatmi Hasbullah 1983: 11).
Moreover, the freely choose ready made media or media by utilization in the market, although they should sometimes spend a lot of money for pay, and even easy made media(media by design) which they could create by themselves in their leisure time at home (Hubbard Petter et al 1983: 114).
Regarding the last thing above, in this case a creative and imaginative teacher are demanded to utilize such media are easily obtained in certain instance or department promotion center like Brochures and Pamphlets for their effective teaching in the exciting language classroom. These media are available in various kinds or types either for Tourism promotion, University, Entrance promotion, Entertainment of the places of in tersest, the contest and the like.
For the following parts, the writer intends to come up the two worthwhile easy-made-media of brochures and pamphlets as two exciting and fascinating media in language classroom
C. Speaking as a Language Skill
Previously, people conceived that language in daily term is spoken. Certainly, it is reality that spoken dominated the communication activities in any field for a long time. It has been confirmed by Moira Chimumbo (1982: 204) that in teaching learning activities, for example, the teacher needs much talk to encourage their pupils to engage in genuine communication in the classrooms, while the students outside the classroom get large opportunities to communicate freely.
Among the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing). Speaking is the second skills that need to comprehend by the people chronologically in their life, when discussion come up what the expression of the linguistics that ”language is speaking and also speaking is language” (Tarigan Hendry Guntur 1986: 4 ) stated that speaking is closely related to vocabulary improvements which students received from reading and listening activities . It needs to be realized that the skills needed in speaking activity it seems the same or at least similar for the sake effective communication. In other words, the sequence of integrated language skills and language elements are necessary to build up an effective communication orally.
1. Speaking as a Way of Communication
Man is social creature, and the first act long his life is social act. In other words, it is the action of the exchange of experience, interpreter and receive though, expressing desires willingness and in the sequence of their daily life, people need talk; to utter’ or to speak anything in his mind to come to his desires to one another. The capability in transmitting the ideas into spoken.
Language is particularly need, in order the people (interlocutors) will be felt satisfy and as much as possible sympathetic to our utterances.
Speaking is the ability in uttering articulated sounds or expressing the words, phrases, sentence, stating the ideas, desires and willingness through audible (sound uttered) or visible (body language) with a well –arranged combined ideas,
Tarigan Hendry Guntur (1986: 16-17) stated several common principles stand of the speaking activity, namely involved two person or more; used linguistic codes or symbols conventionalized; the exchange activities of the participants; connects the communicator with another (intercalates) immediately; currently process; involved vocal and auditory; apparatus; indiscriminate the fact and what is accepted as the rules.
Firstly, involves two person or more, speaking activities will be create when the two persons involved in the process. This statement is exception of the activity of an individual if he strikes his thumb with a hammer.
Secondly, uses linguistic codes or symbols conventionalized. The communication will be happened if the two ccommunicatorss understand what his partner’s says or products.
Thirdly, the exchange activities of the participants meaning that the two or more participants tried to exchange their words but still understandable by the others.
Fourthly, connects the communicator with another to his environments immediately. Oral attitude of the communicator must be always response through well – received by the interlocutor.
The last, communication is currently and relevance to this days action (up to date)
Even though, under the guidance or help of the printed materials and graphics or even the recorder could make the communication is long lasting.
These several principles administered by Tarigan (1986: 16-19) is commonly happened all days and every times in human’s life, when they have to communicate to or from the others.
2. Speaking in Language Classroom
These days, the students in language classroom, either dealing with grammatical, reading, listening, and writing or even in speaking demanded in students in order to be always in target language (English for most Indonesian students). The students should be able to create interactions between them, or to their teachers, pairs, or even at outside the classroom in English.
For example, in teaching learning process, in teaching speaking, the teacher asks the students in order to discuss on something. In this case the students must be able to explore the materials, talked about them and as well as possible give descriptions about them. This particular type of teaching technique is known as SAL (Students Active Learning).
When we step to speaking language classroom we will surprise that there are a lot of teaching technique, teaching styles, teaching media, and even approaches in teaching speaking. This fact, inspires the government culture established a worthwhile technique called, PKG (Pemantapan Kerja Guru) which is stressed on communicative competence of the students. This approach widely used, especially in speaking classroom to gain the students who well-capable in converse target language (Hardjo Marsono 1992: 49).
Related to speaking or oral production tests, J.B Heaton (1975: 83) complained that testing the ability to speak is a most important but extremely difficult skill to test. Moreover, it is possible for a person to produce practically all the correct sound but still unable to communicate his ideas appropriately and effectively. On the other hand, a person can make humorous errors in both phonology and syntax and test succeed in expressing himself fairly clearly.
In many tests of oral production it is neither possible nor desirable to separate the speaking skill from the listening skills. The oral interview is one way of scoring the students speaking ability. (Heaton 1975: 95) wrote that, the scoring of the oral interview is highly subjective and thus sometimes has only low reliability. Tarigan (1986: 27) added that the students are thus susceptible to psychological tensions and also to constraints of style and register necessary in such situation.
For example, many students adopt a quite and colorless one in interviews; some even develop a guarded attitude, while others become over –friendly, (Heaton 1975: 94).
a. Method of Study
The method of the research is Experimental; the data collection is based on the results of the students and the other supporting resource. And the data are analyzed through descriptive Analysis.
b. Population and Sampling Techniques
1. Population of the Study
The population of the study is the second year students of Madrasah Aliah NW Darul Mahmudien 2009/2010, which consists of 74 students. They are all 3 (II BHS, II IPA and II IPS) classes who have actively joining the English lesson. Then the writer decide to take them in random sampling by lottre.
2. Sample of the study
It was stated above that the population of this present study was the second year students of Madrasah Aliah NW Darul Mahmudien 2009/2010. Since the population consists of 74 students and based on Arikunto (1992: 40) if the population is less than 100, it is better to take all of the population as the sample. So, the research subject of this study is 74 students as shows in the tabel bellow:
c. Data Collection Procedures
To obtain the data needed the writer will do this research in three months regular instruction to the subject. (The experimental group treated with brochures and pamphlets and control group without treatment). To apply this investigation the writer give the students speaking test by (short-direct interview to the students).
Heaton (1975: 94) stated that short-oral direct interview is more effective way to assess the students’ oral production directly. This activity will be held by the writer himself under English teacher at the students of Madrasah Aliah NW Darul Mahmudien 2009/2010. Since the short interview is applied, the students are asked to perform their speaking abilities after delivering brochures and pamphlets treated by teacher. Then the writer arange the students speaking test (short-direct interview) as showed in the following table bellow:
To score the student’s ability to communicate orally, the writer uses the guidelines issued by Heaton (1975: 95).The scoring of interview, according to him range from an impression mark to the basis of a fairly detailed marking schema.
The elements to be measured consists of, accent, grammar, vocabulary, and fluency and ccomprehension, Heaton (1975: 94).
d. Data Analysis procedures
To analyze the data obtained, the writer follows the procedures:
Identification the students individual raw and final scores from the student’s results of interviews the writer can be easily listed down the student’s scores into a table of student’s individual , raw and final scores.
1. Calculates the student’s deviation scores :
Meaning that to calculate the deviation of the student, individual pre-test score to his post-test score to compute this deviation score of the two groups the writer applies the following formula:
Ds= Xa - Xb
Ds : Is the students individual deviation
Xa : is the students individual obtained score of post – test
Xb : Is the Students individual obtained score of pre – test
1. Calculates the Students Individual Means Scores:
Heaton (1975:169) wrote that” The means score of any test is then most efficient measurement of central tendency, but it is not always appropriate. To calculate the student’s means scores the writer in this study applies the following formula:
Ms : is the students mean score of group.
X : is the students score (final score)
N : is the number of sample
E : is the sum of …
(Arikunto 1992: 270)
2. Computation of the significance of difference between the two mean score and deviation score with a t – test
Formula, which runs:
Mx : is the mean deviation score of experimental group.
My : is the mean deviation score of control group.
x2 : is the square of student’s deviation scores,
y2 : is the square of student’s deviation scores, of control group,
N : is the number of sample
∑ : is the sum of…
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