THE USE OF COLORED PICTURE TO INCREASE STUDENT’S VOCABULARY MASTERY IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AT THE SECOND GRADE OF SDN 3 AMPENAN IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012
The writer wishes to express her deepest gratitude to Allah SWT.The Almigty for mercies and blessing to the completion of this Proposal.
The writer also very grateful to her first consultant, Mr. Ilham, S.Pd, M.Pd and Ida Laila S.Pd, as my second consultant to their precious time and invanluable corrections guidance, and assistance during of process of this writing.
It is also her pleasure and acknowledgment a great debt to the Dean Faculty of teacher and Education Muhammadiyah University of Mataram,the lectures,the staffs,and all of my freinds especialy to My class English Departement that have helped her.
Finally,The writer would like to deliver my deepest appreciation to my parents,my brothers,sisters,and my freinds for encouragment continual support, so that this report could be accomplished.
As there is no such thing quite prefect in this world the writer honestly appreciate all contructive critism for the completeness of the writing. Hopely,this writing to be valuable contribution to the teaching of English especially in encouraging the teacher,students and their involement of teaching learning process especially in improving their vocabulary.
Colored picture is imitation of things (person,animal,plant etc) made by pencil etc on the paper etc adding by color such us blue,red,yellow,green etc.) color can create special effect in psycology , J Linsco ten and Drs Mansyur stated about color:
“The colours isn’t a phenomenon that only to observe,the colours influence the behaviours,take important part in estetic exam and determine us in like or dislike to the various of thing”.
Based on statement above The writer can take conclusion that teaching vocabulary use colour is good way,it can stimulate the students to understand more.So in this reseach the writer use picture as media because the writer thought that using colored picture can help students is having an understanding about the vocabulary were given.Memorization and repetition also have an important role when we want to teach students using colored picture with selected them related to the syllabus.
However, it is real that many vocabulary classes are usually taught without instructional media.Teachers usually call on the student’s imagination through explanation but words alone are not enough for the students to enter an imagination experience beyond the classroom.
In teaching learning activity, teacher can supplement her students on her teaching using appropriate teaching aids such as visual aids or media of instruction. A teaching language,teacher can take out pictures from magazine,newspaper or books.
Furthermore,pictures can be used for teaching various aspects of language skills. encounters when they could scan the pictures accompanied in this extant,pictures could provide message usually (Sadiman,1986:76).
In relation to instructional problems about using collored picture in teaching,the teachers can use it easly without spending plenty of money,Pictures can be cut out from magazines,newspaper,and books as a hand made,most interestingly.Thus,the language teacher can get pictures that can be used to explain or use simply medium of instruction called pictures.Collored picture can be used to explain or practice teaching language items,such as teaching vocabulary.
There are several studies in teaching vocabulary involves the use of colour, this methology has been tested by Anna Gnoinska (1998) Who found that colour have a tremendous influence on human healty and psyche ,lack or overabudance of certain colour can cause physical or emotional disorders,exposure to colour vibrations is used in the treatment of number of diseases and mental problem. The colour of classroom walls,curtains or even the colour of the teacher’s clothes can either soo the orirritate learners, colour is also an important tool in visual thinking,It separates ideas so that they can be seen more clearly, It stimulate creativity, colour captures and direct attention. Even conventionally out lined notes can benefit from colour coding,maps,cluestermaps,mandalas and more expressive drawing are considerably more effective in colour (William , 1983).
Second, Eaton (2010) reveals that Color file cards are a great way to teach vocabulary. It make easier for students to remember the vocabulary,the act of writing having the learner write out his or her own cards in an important part of the learning process. Colorfile card create a mental visual cue that students can use during test and other situation. the students can make their own card and use them as a study tool. this metedhology emphasize that learners creating their own cards makes them a more powerful study tool than store-bought cards. The students make the cards “their own” by allowing them the flexibility of having as many words on the cards as they choose, adding pictures or stickers or whatever it is that will help them learner.
However,only a few research discuss the use of colored picture,it is a need to conduct a study which can increase student’s vocabulary mastery.
Starting from this point,the writer is interested to investigated the influence of using colored picture to increase student’s vocabulary mastery in elementary school at the second grade at SDN 3 Ampenan.
1.2 . Statement of the problem
The problem stated concering with this study is:
Do the use of colored picture increase student’s vocabulary mastery of elementary at the second grade at SDN 3 Ampenan?
1.3 . The Purpose of the study
The fundamental of this study is as follows:
To find the influence of the using colored picture to increase student’s vocabulary mastery.
1.4 . The Scope of the study
The subject of this study will be taken from the second grade of elementary school at SDN 3 Ampenan in academic year 2011/2012.The investigation is limited to the influence the use of collored picture to increse student’s vocabulary mastery.
1.5. The Significance of the Study
The significance of expected from this study is not only theoretical but also practical.
1. The theoretical significance of this investigation is that the result hopefully will inform about the influence of the use of colored picture to increase student’s vocabulary mastery.
2. The practical significance that the writer expects from this research are as follows:
a. For the English teacher this research is intended to be one of the consideration for them in applying visual aids effectively.
b. This is also expected to give the students in interesting techniques of presenting the material in order to increase their ability on English vocabulary. So the writer view and understanding on how to use colored picture.
1.6. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid miss interpretation of any terms use in the study,especially on the reader’s side,the writer will give a brief definition on each term use.
Is one of valuable aids,they bring “image of reality into the unnatural world of the language classroom” (Hill,1990;1)
In the extent the students try to guess what the world is at each stage .One the world has been found,students tell teacher and ask for the net letter that is going to be guessed.
In this study, picture means is a kind of teachimg activity in the form of telling the other students factual or event a kind of narrrative,or other words,it shaves to order with several instructions which is prepared for the students
Having a particular color or defferent colour.(Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary.Oxford University Press).
“Vocabulary is a total number of words which make up a language (Hornby,1983:959 ).”
Based on the definition above,the writer summarizes that teaching vocabulary in this study is a teaching activity which is done by the teacher to give or to introduce knowledge of the rules and system of language,in which this knowladge can help the students to understand the language easily.
Is complete control or knowladge (Hornby,1987:523) or the ability to understand English words order patterns as an essential step in learning English.
Person who studying at a college or university or any persons studies (H. Manser Martin.Oxford Dictionary,1993:412)
To make or become grater in size,degree,frequency,etc:grow or expand (http://www,the free dictionary,com/increase
In this reseaarsh the students are the second grade of elementary school at SDN 3 Ampenan as a subject.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A picture series is a number of related composite pictures liked or sequence,Hence,its main function is to tell story or sequence of event.A wide variaety of pictures available in text books.Comedies and cartoon series in magazine for the taecher to copy enlarge.Sets of pictures are also available commercially.However,the observant teacher can find such series in others sources,for examples calender and wrapping paper.
Pictures from such sources should always be mounted on light weigh on card board.They can be used as they are on the one sheet or cut into individuals frames.The latter allows for more varied use into the classroom and are also unable for the teacher to take out whatever frames not all of which are needed to tell the story.
2.1.1. Picture Teaching Media
Brown (1980 :7 :Cited in Indra Purnawan,2010) define “teaching as showing or helping something to learn how to do something,giving instruction,guiding in the study of something,providing with knowledge,causing to know or understand.” The media that invlove in making students to know and understand should be effective. When a teacher is teaching, he is showing collored pictured to students,and asks what it is ? He is,actually, not asking them wheter they can regognize the object the words refer to in the lesson being taught.The pupils look at the picture,or at what the picture represents,and then expose their answers in foregn language.The students will be asked to hear the language as a means of expressing ideas. It is much with what stated by Soepomo (1988:3) that the media in the classroom is wisely expected to bring the message,information from resource (teacher) through several channels,(visual,audio-visual,seem and performance to the receivers (students) or a group of students.
From the above illustration, we can infer that the teachers and their students are engaging in similiar phenomena,the teacher use any kind of appropriate media or instructional media to make lesson pressenting acceptable well and interesting atmosphere of the class created . It is supported by Brown(1997;67) that the discussion on ways to use educational media usually stress on the need to be consistence with what the teachers want students to learn form experiences that media provide.
Sadiman, (1986;4) complains that “the teacher or instructors or maybe trainers are not the sourceas of learning:create the harmonious intraction with media,which probably help the students easier to get could understand in learning knowledge.Many experimental programs have been conducted in a majority of the fields of curriculum,each following an ‘approach system” or “ systematical planning “.In nearly every case,media are taken as central elements of the approach to the systematical instruction.”
Another phrase that respresent a stage in evaluating the knowledge about teaching is “instructional technology”.some years ago, however ,it was called “Audio-visual Aids”. In more recent years,charlk board,audio materials such as tape recorder,telephone facilities,radio and even more recently ,television and computers have appeared when the students are leaarning.In addition it is English magazine,either for students or for the people.Media are relly large and wide items; it can be all kinds of the bridge’ which can seend the messages of information from the teachers to the students through several channels such as,visual (picture),audio-visual seems and performance students or a group students,Soepomo(1988:3).
2.1.2. Colored Picture in Teaching Vocabulary
Colored picture is one of media to teach vocabulary,It is a well known act that students recall words better when they read the definitions and draw their own pictures to represent them than when they read and write the words and the definitions. Tracing a picture of the definition produces better recall than writing the definition, and creating one’s own visual image is more effective than tracing (Wittrock 1977:171–172). Using colour in a number of ways produces similar results: students concentrate better, spend more time processing a word, and find learning more interesting and pleasant.
Colour is useful in both learning and revising, as well as making students and teachers aware of the way they approach certain tasks. In teaching vocabulary to more advanced students of English, this technique might show what information they seek first when working with a dictionary: whether they look for definitions, equivalents in their own native tongue, example sentences, synonyms, or other information.
2.1.3. Function of The Pictures
By the very nature of teaching and learning media in process of communication.The communication process must be created and realized throught the deliverty of messages of information activities between teachers and learners.Pictures have very important function in education that can anticipate a passive attitude and can increase the excitement of learning for learners.In this regard,the following will be quoted some expert opinion about the function of picture.
Mery Ernestove,(1986:5) in her article wrote that pictures and their images are more vivid than words,They are much easier to recall that is why picture should be an integral part of every teacher’s professional equipment,and each teacher should make collections of picture what will enable for them tp present different language items.
The successful use of colored pictured to increase student’s vocabulary mastery they must be selected carefully,The purpose to be served is major factor in selection.In selecting the pictures a teacher must consider the following condition,as stated by Amir Hamzah (1998:29):
1. Picture must be good,clear,interesting and easy to understand
2. Picture should be authentic
3. Picture should be simple
4. Picture should be in accordance with the student’s intelligent
5. Picture should be colorful and interesting.
2.1.4. Adventages and Disadvantages Pictures For Teaching Vocabulary
Advantages of Using Pictures
The writer would rather use the colored pictured(materials) instead of
individul pictures,composite pictures,and pictures series because:
a. Picture are very useful for presenting new grammatical and vocabulary items,They help to provide the situation and context which light up the meaning of words or utterance and indirectly help the teacher to avoid resorting to translation of the lenghty explanation of meaning.Contexts which are outside the classroom or which are difficult to recreate in words are also be explained pictures.
b. Pictures,allow for meaning full practice of vocabulary and structures presented by the teachers,rather than have students repeat words or utterances which,give us more knowledge.The teacher can use pictures as cursor prompts.
c. Picture can also provide a stimulus for using the language at the production and manipulaton stages to speak,to read and write .It also provides the students with information object,actions,and events to use.
d. Picture can be used for revision from one lesson to another as well as for long team revision of vocabulary and structures.
e. Pictures can be used as supplement for whatever the text book of the teacher using or course that she is following.Often text book pictures are little help in conveying meaning so a supply of additional pictures can always be used to make up for any deficiencies in the text book.Pictures of course can be used to provide more practice the exercise rather than students by using the text book.
f. Pictures are easy to collect,to make and transfer.The enormous variety means that the teacher can use it for teaching any aspect of the language to any age, group at the level of language proficiency.
Disadvantages Of Using Pictures
a. Picture only stress in an ever sense perception
b. Students pay attention on the picture more than on learned material
c. It takes time and costs much to provide attractive pictures.
d. Small and unclear pictures may arouse problems in the teaching learning.
In teaching and learning language we can avoid the vocabulary use,eventhough the material is used by oral or written language,Today we have estabilished tehcniques for the study of the language from different number point view,in teaching of vocabulary for istance,it is must be perfomed carefully as an important sub in speaking,reading,writing,listening and translation,when speaking and writing he should construe some of vocabulary in his ideas,feeling and desires and when listening and reading,the first thing he should do is try to understsnd the text,he need the meaning of them.
As we know that vocabulary is the basic component of language beside grammar and four skills,can not be built without role of vocabulary,vocabulary is one of the most important basic foundation of language skills.
Following are some generalitation of what people have agreed about Vocabulary:
a. Vocabulary is the total number of words that make up a language.
b. Vocabulary is the body of words to know to a person or used in particular book,subjact, etc.
c. Vocabulary is “a list of words with their meaning,response which accompanies a text book in foreign language (Hornby,1974)
By these definitions,the writer can conclude that vocabulary is in fact,the bone of language,a total nunber of words that make up a language with their meaning using by group or person in human being communication, It makes possible for someone or students to express something or message to another,reads different books of different subjects,and also deals with foreign language.
Moreover ,according to “The Advance Learner’s dictionary”,
“vocabulary is (range of words) know to ,or used by a person profession (Hornby,1983).”
The definition suggest that in order to have a communication or perform a profession,we should have or know a range of words.
According to Dictionary of education ; “vocabulary is the content and function words of a language which are learned so thoroughly that they be come a part of a child understands speaking.And letter reading and writing those Vocabularies”.
Moreover,”Vocabulary is the words having meaning when heard or seen even though not produced by the individual himself or communicate with other (Good,1959:642)
It can be inferred that by these definitions that people could communicate each other when they have enough vocabulary,Vocabulary is learned completely in order to get the point of communication.It is not a matter here that Vocabulary is something purposefully heard or seen.
2.2.1. Sort Of Vocabulary
When we see the real use of English and other languages,it seems that vocabulary is the list of words that have meanings,forms,and orientation in our minds consequence of involving the two kinds of devisions.One really covers the whole aspects of language.It items that it can generally or fully be used for unlimited business or affairs.And the last that vocabulary is only used in a certain area,while for the other area is not.
The reality seems to be focused by Allen and Corner (1978;8) and is divided the vocabulary into two major types:
a. General vocabulary that is used in all subject
b. Technical vocabulary that consists of words having special meaning particular areas such as mathematics,social,studies,and science.
2.2.2 Procedures in Learning and Teaching Vocabulary
In gaining a lot of command in vocabulary,the learners should be healed to recognize first what their needs are.This is important,because words are in various kinds which make impossible for the teacher to teach all of words.In this respect, a recognized step like those presented in previous discussion must truly be applied by the teacher.
The teacher then should find efficient techniques in the implementation of the process in the classroom.This means to make the students ready and they could gain the main objectives of the teaching. Allen and Corder (1978:8) suggested the need of technique: “ Technique is the implementation that actually takes place in a classroom.It is particular contrivance used to accomplish immediate objectives”.
Next,the particulate things to be aware of is the student’s vocabulary development,the writer find conveniently to say that one technique to bring the students into a fit presentation is having them read and find the words which are still unfamiliar.These words then,can be guessed or they may try to predict the new meaning of the new words through the context on the text.
“Vocabulary is upon experience and the most growth or capable reader is gained through their own reading. The Robinson’s views in Al-Kufaishi (1988:42).This means that the students should read on their own try evolve their capability in develoving maintaining a plenty of vocabulary.In relation to the reading process that might be handled in vocabulary teaching,Allen and Corner (1978:1) propuosed guidelines that “ the students in their reading process should constantly analyze the way the language is used.They should be used in the look for special usages or combination of words,the teachers must see to it that the students acquire,The ability to infer meanings of unknown words from the context instead of resorting to the communicate effectively appropriate choice of words,logical expressions used to link sentences,special,meaningful interactions of words and phrases,and new uses of words and grammatical elements,and they accur in type text”.
2.2.3 Testing Vocabulary
The writer,in this section,presents only the concept of testing vocabulary.This deals only with the description of the test,and for what purpose.
Therefore, to know directly the progress, the vocabulary teaching or the student’s achievement,we should test them. According to in Heaton (1975), it purpose as intructional,administrative,and guidance functions.To test
Vocabulary achievement there are some types of test that could be developed:(1) Fill-in, and(2) match
Steven in Heaton (1975) advises these two types as follows:”The collocations of word are multiple.It is advisable,when testing vocabulary to seek a range of association,rather then relying on a single one”.
Finally ,Heaton (1975:41) suggest that a first task for writer (testmaker) of the vocabulary test it to determine the degree to which he wishes to concentrate on testing the student’s active or passive vocabulary.His next task is then to decide wether the lexical items in the test should be taken from the spoken or the written language.
2.3. The Related Studies
The are several studies in teaching vocabulary involves use of colored picture, Anna Gnoinska (1998) Who found that colour have tremendous influence on human healty and psyche,lack or overabudance of certain colour can cause physical or emotionnal disorders,exposure to colour vibration is used in the treatment of number,of diseases and mental problem.The colour of classroom walls,curtains or even the colour of the teacher’s clothes can either soo the orirritate learners,colour is also an important tool in visual thinking.so that they can be seen more clearly,It stimulate creativity,colour captures and direct attention.
Dr.Eaton (2010) reveals that color file card are a great way to teach vocabulary,It make easier for students to remember the vocabulary, the act of writing having the learner write out his or her own cards in an important part of the learning process,Color file card create mental visual cue that students can use during test and other situation.the students can make their own card and use them as study tool,this metedhology emphasize that learners creating their own cards makes them a more powerful study tool,the students make the cards’’ their own’’ by allowing them the flexibility of having as many words on the cards as they choose.
Hesty Puspita Sari stated that : (1) Using picture is better than translation for teaching vocabulary to elementary students; (2) Using picture is more effective than translation to teach vocabulary for elementary students having high motivation ;(3) Using translation is not more effective than using picture to teach vocabulary for students having low motivation;(4) There is an interaction between teaching technique and motivation.The research finding of this study imply that using picture is an effective technique used to teach vocabulary to elementary students for those having high motivation and translation is not more effective to be applied to those having low motivation.
Therefore, it is recommended that (1) English teachers develop various techniques to teach vocabulary to elementary students; (2) The students use colored picture in learning vocabulary as one of their meaningful strategies to overcome their problem in improving English vocabulary;and (3) The future researcher develop some dimensions which have not been developed in this research like using different populations” characteristic or student’s condition (students’ habit or interest)”
3.1 Method of Research
This study adopts experimental reseach. According to Guy (1996), Experimental Reseach is the only type of reseach that can truly test hypothesis concering cause-and-effect relationship. It represents the most valid approach to the solution of educational problems,both practical and theoretical.
The reseach design of this study is quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. It come from the fact that the groups were not randoumly sampled (Nunan and Barley,2008). A quasi experimental reseach is a type of evaluation which aims to determine wheter a program or intervention has the intended effect on a study’s participant. Nonequivalent control group design is reseach study in which the defferent groups of participant are formed under circumstances that do not permit the reseacher to control the assignment of individuals to groups because those groups are pre- exating; the groups of participants are therefore considered non equivalent.
This study employs pre –test and post-test experimental design. Two groups of sample use treated differently,the first group (group A) as the experimental group treat with colored picture, and the second group (group B) use picture without color. The data collection is based on the result of the students and other sources and the data obtained will be analyzed through descriptive and quantitative method and basic statistical computation.
The research is aimed at finding out the influence of using colored picture in students ,vocabulary, the research is based on an experimental design, at the end of the reguler instruction the two groups will test post-test.
3.2. Population and Sample
Scarvia B, Anderson (1975:339: cited : Indra purnawan) defines that population is a set of all number of element possesing one more attribute of interest.And this research,the defination of population applied is that a set of elements and or character having at least the same catagories.The target population as the subject of study is second grade student of elementary school of SDN 3 Ampenan in academic year 2011/2012 which consist of 60 students and devides into two classes. They are class 2.A consist 30 students and class 2.B consist 30 students.
According to Arikunto (1992 :107) “ if the population less than 100 or so it is suggested to take all as sample, but if they are more than 100 or so we can take only 10%-15%,20%-25%,30%-35%, etc.
From the theory above of sample technique, the population is less than hundred, finally the researcher tries take all of them, that is they were 60 students. Which were divided into the class namely: class 2A and 2B where each class consist of 30 students. From the both class, furthermore, the researcher do not randomize them to divide which class be experimental group and control group, but the teacher merely choose class 2A as control group and class 2B as experimental group.
3.3 Instrument used in Collecting Data
The writer will use colored picture as instrument in collecting data and the writer will explain the material about english vocabulary ( names of fruits, names of nouns etc ), than show the picture and explain about it, give the question and ask the students to answer the question based on the pictures.
The test are consist of Pre-Test and Post-Test. The test are made to measure students vocabulary knowledge level in general.
Before the instructional activities, the writer divide the sample into two groups, the two groups will give a pre-test, After the test, the writer give an instruction to both of groups for two weeks, the experimental group was taught using colored picture, while the control group using picture without color. After a month instruction they will give post-test. The test shall the same as that in the pre-test.
Finally, after post-test was administered, the writer continue analyzing the students works sheet to find out the individual scores of the two groups. These are used as the data of the researcher.
Observation is an intentional and a systematic surveillance concerning phenomenon’s with psychical symptoms,and than it is conducted by doing record-keeping of seen maters and perceived, (Subagyo,1991:63). Observation here is meant to give previous view to her about the condition of the students in SDN 3 Ampenan..
3.4 Method of Data Analysis
After obtaining individual scores of both groups,the writer processes the score with the following steps.
a. The researcher calculates the means score of both experimental and control group.
b. The writer draws standard deviation scores of the two groups.
c. The writer tests the significance of the two deviations score :
1. Finding the mean scores of the two groups, the writer applies the following
M : the mean score of the two group
X : the students final scores for experimental group
Y : the studenta final score for control group
N: the number of the sample
Ʃ : the sum of
2. Finding the standard deviation of the two groups.The formula standars
deviation as follow:
a. Finding the standard deviation of experimental group.
The formula is :
X : the standard deviation for experimental group
N : the number of sample
Ʃ : the sum of
b. Finding the standard deviation of control group.
The formula is :
X = the standard deviation for control group
N = the number of sample
Ʃ = the sum of...
c. Finally , the last deep to know the significance of the two variables being
investigated by comparing the two mean scores and its each standard
deviation by using the following formula :
= t = Mx – My
∑x2 + ∑y2 1 + 1
Nx + Ny - 2 Nx Ny
M : the mean score of each group
N : the number of sample
X : the standard deviation score of experimental of group
Y : the standard deviation score of control group
Σ : is the sum of …
√ : the root of...
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