A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TEXTBOOK USED
FOR FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMPN 1 SAKRA TIMUR
AND MTs. NW MENCEH ACADEMIC YEAR 2008/2009
Learning English is very important because English is an international language. Parts of society have realized that English is very important in their life. If they go to abroad, they will use English to communicate to other because they can not use their native language there due to the fact that people there don’t understand it, so they use English to communicate to others because English is an international language.
Nowadays, English is one of the subjects at schools. In learning English at schools, textbooks are the key component. Textbook is an important resource. For the teacher in the assisting students to learn English. It is foundations of school instruction and the primary source of information for students and teachers. Textbook serves as one of the main instruments for shaping knowledge, attitudes and disciplines of our students.
In Indonesia, textbook serve as the basic for much of the language input that the learners receive and the language practice that take place in classroom. In some situations, textbooks may function as a supplements to teacher’s instruction in the ESL teaching and learning process. For most teachers, textbooks provide the foundation for the content of lesson, the balance of the skills taught, as well as the kinds of language practice that the students engage in during class activities. For ESL learners, textbooks become the major source of contact that they have with the language apart from the input provided by the teacher.
In language learning, textbook takes a significant role during the process of teaching and learning. It is absolutely a difficulty for teacher to teach systematically without a textbook. A textbook also provide a guarantee for students on their systematic revision about what they have learn and guarantee for them about what they are going to learn.
Textbook is designed with following the curriculum. This curriculum is arranged by the government and the textbooks always been redesigned based on the curriculum that is approved by the government. When the curriculum is redesigned automatically the publishers of the textbook also redesign their display of their textbooks.
Curriculum will have meaning and function to develop students, when it is applied and transformed by the teachers to their students in an activity called “teaching and learning process”. In other words teaching and learning process is the implementation of a curriculum.
According to the explanation above the writer concludes that learning English is very important because English is international language, to support this students need textbook to support teaching learning process in classroom. Textbooks are key component to support teaching learning process, beside that textbook should based on the curriculum that arranged by government.
As we know that commonly urban school have better facilities than rural school, due reason maybe because the position of urban school near to the central information. As a result, the students can easily find supporting materials, such as the textbook used. The writer decided to investigate the textbook used in urban school and suburb school because at this time the societies always interpret that urban school is better than suburb school. In this case is textbooks used in SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and MTs. NW Menceh.
1.2 Statement of Problems
In this research, the writer is going to answer some problems related to the textbook analysis. The problems is elaborated into several research questions as follow:
1. What textbooks are used for the first year students of SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and for those of MTs. NW Menceh?
2. Do the schools use different or similar textbooks? In what ways are the textbooks different or similar?
3. Are the textbook relevant with the expectation of the current policy on curriculum.
1.3 Objective of Study
The objectives of doing this research are as follow:
1. To identify the textbook those are used for the first year students of SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and MTs. NW Menceh.
2. To compare or contras the textbooks that are used for the first year students of SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and MTs. NW Meneh.
3. To explain the relevancy of the textbooks expectation based on curriculum.
1.4 Scope and Limitation
This research take place in SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and MTs. NW Mencehe on the academic year 2008/2009 for the first year students.
1.5 Significance of Study
The findings of the research are expected to be significant for:
1. The teacher
Teacher can determine the appropriate textbook related to the students’ needs.
2. The students
Textbooks used are suitable with student needs so the textbook can motivate students to learn.
3. The school
School can determine the kind of facilities used by students and teachers to improve their competencies.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms
There are some key terms that the writer wants to clarify them are:
Textbook is a book used at school or colleges for the formal study of a subject in addition textbook is defined as a manual of instruction a standard book in any branch of study.
2. Comparative study
Comparative study is the act of comparing two or more variables with a view to discovering something about one or all of the variables being compared. In other definition, comparative study looks at two or more similar focuses on a few specific characteristics. This method can also be used to compare the same group, condition or individual over time. Comparisons may be qualitative or quantitative. In this study analysis requires the descriptive of textbooks. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the definition of descriptive study. Based on descriptive study is a study that focuses on a particular situation or set of situation, reports on important aspects observed, and attempts to determine the interrelationship among them. In addition descriptive study is involves collecting data in order to test hypothesis or to answer question about opinions of people about a topic or issue.
Based on the statement above, comparative study is to compare two or more variables to look for the similarities or differences between variable. In this research the writer is going to compare two textbooks from two different schools and the writer look for the similarities and differences between both textbooks, but not only the similarities and differences but also the content of textbook with the curriculum.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Language and Language Teaching
Whenever we talk about language, we start asking for ourselves of what really mean term language. Several experts try to explain about a language, based on some specific elements in a language.
A language is a system of sound and meaning. “As a language is systematic, the learners of the language can make a systematic approach to the language by making sentences asking, question, negative sentences or using grammar of the language” (Frankin cited in Nur Asiah (2005)).
Language is as medium of communication. Human being uses the language to communicate with other. Language can be studied from numerous points of views. Some linguists define it differently. Anderson and Stageberg (cited in Nur Asiah 2005) said that language is purely human and non instinctive method of communicative ideas, emotion and desires by mean a system of voluntary produced symbol.
This opinion seems to be supported by Finochiaro (cited in Widya, 2006), she said that language is a system or arbitrary vocal symbol which permit all people in given culture, to communicate or to interact.
When talking about second language teaching and learning, our association runs to a complex and systematic process of transferring values and rules to the learners. Brown (cited in Widya, 2006) defines that “teaching” is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling learners to learn and setting the condition for teaching, the condition for learning. In other hand, many experts agree that language teaching has means as both what is being taught and the means by which it is being taught (Allwright and Bailey, 1991, Cook: 1991, Ellis: 1992 in Widya, 2006). In term of teaching, all of language teaching activities are aimed to construct the language use through discussion, communication task and role plays (Littlewood, 1994). Through these activities it is expected that English language teaching achieved its objectives.
2.2 Language Teaching and Textbook
Hutchinson and Torres (cited in Widya, 2006) say that there is no teaching learning situation is complete until it has its relevant textbook. It means that the textbook itself is created right just before the curriculum, or the curriculum creates the textbook, which is relevant. Even most of time, textbook and the curriculum are created in the quite same time. It is because that the curriculum and the textbook are integrated and as a range of system in teaching and learning.
The textbook itself helps the teachers to teach their students systematically. Grant (cited in Widya, 2006) explains that most of general English teachers find some difficulties in teaching material without a textbook. For teachers, a textbook is needed. It is may be a different thing for ESP classroom that needs of the learners. But if there are teachers that do not need a textbook, they probably have plenty of time to prepare the material or they are genius people.
For students, as Grant (cited in Widya, 2006) states that, a textbook offer the students fully arranged revision about tasks that they have done. And also it givens the students a brief explanation about the tasks that they are going to do for the next meeting. Or, at least a textbook gives the students and also the teachers a clear guideline and description about what the materials is going to talk about for their next meeting. In other hand, a handful folder used in a classroom that seems to failed in order to fulfill the needs of the teachers and the students about a systematic book.
It is answering the question of what a textbook can do. Furthermore, Grants (cited in Widya, 2006) explains that the textbook itself is able to give the students and the teacher about what should be taught or learned. Also, a textbook provides the description of the method that is going to be used by the teacher on the next to be taught materials. For the students, a textbook is an aid in learning a second language.
Other researchers also sign about the side effects of the textbook, such as Swan (cited in Hutchinson and Torres in Widya 2006). He states about it as just a tool to loosen the teachers’ responsibilities in participating in daily decision about materials that will be given and the method that will be used in teaching the next given materials. The teacher can be easily ignoring their actual job by only sitting back behind the table and given the responsibility in teaching the students to the textbook. They just order their students to do the exercise. Or, the teachers are easily relaxing at their office and let the students and the textbooks run the system.
Finocchiaro (cited in Widya, 2006) n writes that English curriculum programmed, from general English specified English is designed effectively and efficiently that enable the learners to meet completion at the end of the course. Or, the learners want to continue studying and in the purpose of self-learning. Even, it enables the learners to improve their skills and giving a specialization in any aspects of English based on the learners’ choice.
Finnochiario (cited in Widya, 2006) in describe that, although each sides of English skills or its feature maybe practiced not in the same time. But it can also be practiced in real life situations. The four integrated skills are used together by the learners so that they can be aware of independency or the skills relationship in real life.
2.3 The Nature of Textbook
Textbooks are so many, and so varied, that it is very difficult to make accurate generalizations about them. According to Neville Grant (1992) that there are two very broad categories of textbooks. It is not always possible to place particular textbooks firmly within either of these categories, as there is a continuum from are categories to another. The two categories are traditional textbooks, and communicative textbook.
Traditional textbook tries to get students to learn the language as a system. Once they have learned the system, it is hoped that they are then quipped to use the language for their own purposes in any way they think fit.
Traditional textbooks have all or most of these characteristics:
1. They tend to emphasize of the forms, or patterns, of language (the grammar) more than the communicative functions of language-the jobs, we do using it. For example, asking for information, making requests, apologizing, asking the way, etc.
2. They tend to focus on reading and writing activities, rather than listening and speaking activities.
3. They often make use of great deal of first language.
4. They emphasize the important of accuracy.
5. They tend to focus rather narrowly on a syllabus and examinations.
6. They are often attractive to some teachers, because they seem easy to use, and are highly examination-orientated.
And the communicative textbook tries to solve this program by creating opportunities for the students to use the language in classroom, as a sort of ‘halfway house’ before using in real life.
Communicative textbooks vary quite a lot, but very broadly they have the following characteristic:
1. They emphasize the communicative functions of language the job people do using the language - not just the forms.
2. They try to reflect the students’ need and interest.
3. They emphasize skills in using the language, not just the forms of the language, and they are therefore activity-based.
4. They usually have a good balance among the four language skills, but many emphasize listening and speaking more than a traditional textbooks does.
5. They tend to be very specific in their definition of aims.
6. Both content and methods reflect the authentic language of everyday life.
7. They encourage work in groups and pairs, and therefore make heavier demands on teachers’ organizational abilities.
8. They emphasize fluency, not just accuracy.
According to Tarigan and Tarigan (in Maini Hariati, 2006) there are 4 criteria used to classifying a textbook:
1. Based on the subject in SD, SMP, SMU and SMK
2. Based on the subject in the college
3. Based on the writing of textbook
4. Based on the writer’s number of textbook.
2.4 The Analysis of Textbook
How necessary is a textbook? The answer to this question depends on the teachers’ own teaching style. The resources available to them, the accepted standards of teaching in every language school, etc.
No textbook is perfect. Therefore, teachers should have the opinion of assigning supplementary material based on their own specific needs in their own specific teaching situation.
As teacers, many of us have had at the responsibility of evaluating textbooks. Often, we have not been confident about what to base our judgment on, how to qualify our decisions, and how to report the result of our assessment, it seems to us that to date textbook selection has been made in haste and with a lack of systematically applied criteria.
Two types of criteria are introduced in this scheme: internal criteria which are language-related and external criteria which give a broader view of the book. Under the pronunciation criterion, the presentation of pronunciation requires attention to: (1) completeness of presentation which refers to the coverage of the sounds and suprasegmentals, (2) appropriateness of presentation which concerns whether or not students are from a single language background, and (2) adequacy of practices which deals with both the quality and quantity of practice. By quality what is meant is practice in a context, i.e. sounds practiced in words, words in sentences, etc.
Under grammar criterion, (a) adequacy of pattern inventory deals with how much of the structures should be presented and how well it is presented, (b) appropriate sequencing refers to the organization of presentation, that is to say, simple sentence patterns should come first, introduction of new structures must rest on already-mastered simpler patterns, etc, and (c) adequacy of drill and of practice refers to judgments about how readily students can discern a form and about how much practice is required to guarantee this adequacy.
Twenty one years later, Penny Ur (1996, P. 186) in Ansary and Babaii offers another checklist with more or less a similar focus and approach to EFL/ESL textbook evaluation. A cursory look at its contents indicates that still O good’ pronunciation practice, O good grammar, presentation, grading and sequencing, culture and pedagogical concerns in presentation, vocabulary practice, topics being interesting to different learners, etc. are emphasized as “grounds on which one might criticize or reject a textbook” (P.184)
Stradling (Nicholls in Widya, 2006) states there are some categories that should be investigated. Those categories should be considered in analyzing a textbook. The first one dealing with evaluation of a textbook content. The second one is identifying the textbook’s pedagogical values. The third one is identifying the intrinsic qualities in the history textbook. And the last one is dealing with the extrinsic factors that may impact on the textbook.
Another addition is formed by Nicholls (in Widya, 2006) who argues that the addition of categories which evaluate the style form of a textbook is only the outside of the analysis about the information that is included or omitted only to find out how the content of a textbook is present.
The other researchers that have dealt with the materials analysis and evaluation are Hutchinson and Water (in Widya, 2006). They argued that the materials evaluation is done in order to seek the fitness of the specific purposes of language learning. For example, they argued hat the evaluation of a textbook or material given whether it is for the schools or course usage, will lead to a large spending in money in published course. Or even it will lead to a large spending of time in teacher produced or adapt materials. Even though, hey stated the end of the course or of the academic years will make consequences of having a bad choice. The careful evaluation and analysis on the material or the textbook will save the sense of guild and frustrations of giving the wrong choice to the students.
This careful evaluation and analysis, they argued has to be done as objectively as possible if the teachers want to give their students the best choice of a textbook or material that they are going to use. Beside that, the best way to be taken by the teachers in analyzing and evaluating the textbook or the material is to be taken a deep look on the needs and solution separately. It means that the final purpose is the main consideration to be thought about by the teachers.
It is still important to be able to evaluate the books you are using on some sensible, principled basis. This process of evaluation is the first step to wards deciding how a textbook should be most profitably used in your classroom and how it should be adapted.
According to Neville Grant (1992: 118-121) there are thee stages of evaluation then are follows: (1) initial evaluation, (2) detailed evaluation, (3) in-use evaluation.
There are three stages of evaluation in more detail:
1. Initial evaluation
Once way of finding out whether a book is worth looking at more closely is to apply the ‘CATALYST’ test. A textbook should act as a laboratory, it should facilitate change. For this reason, the CATALYST test is very appropriately named. The eight letters in the word CATALYST represent the eight criteria by which we can decide whether a textbook is suitable for our classroom.
The words in the mnemonic represent the key question we should ask ourselves:
1) Communicative? Is the textbook communicative? Will the student to be able to use the language to communicate the result of using the book? Many teachers regard this as a fundamental question.
2) Aims? Does it fit in with aims and objectives? These may be laid down by the authorities, or devised by ourselves.
3) Teachable? Does the course seem teachable? Does it seem reasonably easy to use, well-organized, and easy to find your way around?
4) Available add-ons? Are there only useful ‘add-ons’ – additional materials as teachers’ book, tapes, workbooks, etc? if so, are they available?
5) Level? Does the level seem about right?
6) Your impression? What is your overall impression of the course?
7) Students’ interest? What is your student likely to find the book interesting?
8) Tried and tested? Has the course been tried and tested in real classroom? Where? By whom? What were the results? How do you know?
2. Detailed evaluation
Once we have applied the CATALYST test, and decided that a textbook will do, we then have do decide how well it will do, and whether it is more, or less, suitable then other textbooks that are available. Of course, it would be ideal to try the course out. This is what many language schools do. After piloting a new course for a term or so, they then decide whether to adopt it or not. If we evaluate more than one textbook and decide one of them.
Three conditions mentioned in detailed evaluation are:
1) Does the course suit the students?
2) Does it suit the teacher?
3) Does it suit the syllabus?
3. In-Use evaluation
Once we have adopted a textbook, it is of course necessary to re-evaluation it constantly. No questionnaire, however elaborate, can give a conclusive answer to the final test: does it work in the classroom? This evaluation process should be continuous, even in situations where you do not plan, for financial or other reasons, to replace the textbook for some time.
The other textbooks evaluation can we find in Jeremy Harmer (1998) there are nine main areas which teachers will want to consider in the books which they are looking at.
Teacher should try to follow this 4-stage procedure.
Analysis : the teacher can look through the various books on offer, analyzing each for answers to the question. It helps to have a chart to write down the answers for this so that the information is clearly displayed.
Piloting : By far the best way to find a book’s strengths and weaknesses is to try it our with a class, seeing which lesson work and which don’t. if teachers are teaching more than one group at the same level, they may want to teach two different books to compare them.
Consultation : Before choosing a book, teachers should try and find out if any of their colleagues have used the book before and how well they got on with it. Through discussion, they can get an idea about whether or not the book is likely to be right for them.
Gathering opinions : Anyone who might have an opinion on the book is worth speaking to, from the publisher and bookshop owners, to colleagues and friends. It is also a good idea to let students look through the book and see how they react to sight of it, if they express a preference which you agree with, they are likely to be more committed to the textbook.
Furthermore, Celce-Murcia (in Maini Hariati, 2006) that several guidance point to analysis a textbook are as follows:
1) Bibliographical data
- Level of proficiency
- Author (s)
- Data publication
- Numbers of volumes
- Number of pages
- Price of textbook
- Self-contained or part of series
- The professional qualification of the authors
2) Aims and Goals
- Aims and goals
- Distribution of emphasis among the language skills
- How much material is covered
- Distribution of new teaching point evenly dispersed through out the text
- The text intends teacher or learners
3) Topic and context of subject cover the theme of interest, situation of necessity and linguistics’ need
- The conceptual level (concrete vs. abstract)
- How are the units and lessons organized.
- Is the culture integrated in the text dialog and exercise and is it treads as supplemental or optimal material.
2.5 The Characteristics of Good Textbook
According to Jeremy Harmer (1998) states that students often feel more positive about textbooks than some teachers. For them, the textbook is reassuring, it allows them to look forward and back, giving them a chance to prepare for what’s coming and reviews what they have done. Now that books tent to be much more colorful then in the old days, students enjoy looking at the visual material in front of them.
For teacher too, textbooks have many advantages. In the first place, they have a consistent syllabus and vocabulary will have been chosen with care. Good textbooks, for example, to back them up. They have dependable teaching sequences and, at the very least, they offer teachers something to fall back on when they run out of ideas of their own.
As stated previously that textbook plays the crucial role, especially it is adopted as main aid in teaching learning process which also depends upon individuals, their need and their relationship in classroom.
Teacher plays a principle role, especially in teaching learning process his/her responsibility is not only limited as a teacher, controller, motivator, but as facilitator of learning. It means that teacher gives easiness to the student inactive learning. The activities can be done in many forms, like: choosing the available resources and the instrument of learning like textbook which is needed by the students.
Tarigan and Tarigan (in Maini Hariati, 2006) stated that a good textbook has to fulfill ten criteria as follows:
1. Textbook has to interest student motivation. Good textbook can make interest students motivations, so automatically the students want to learn. If the students automatically want to learn by themselves, it can easier for them to understand the subject.
2. Textbook has to make interest illustration. Good textbook can make interest illustrations, in the students’ opinion textbook it means study, so if in the textbook there are interest illustration that can make change the students’ opinion.
3. Textbook should be related to other subjects. Good textbook is related to other subject for example textbook for vocational school the textbook that they used related to other subject.
4. Textbook should be able to stimulate personal activities of student. Good textbook can able to stimulate personal activities of students. Every student has their own interest so good textbook should be able to stimulate personal activities of students.
5. Textbook motivate the students who use it. Good textbook can motivate the students who use it.
6. Textbook should be considered linguistics aspect which appropriate with the students’ level. Good textbook should be considered linguistic aspect appropriate with the students’ level; with appropriate the students’ level can make easier for the student it selves.
7. Textbook has to aware and firm or clear to avoid students’ confusion about vague concept. Good textbook has to aware and firm to avoid students’ confusion about vague concept, of course if there is vague concept it can make confuse the students. So good textbook should avoid a vague concept.
8. Textbook has to have clear point of view. Good textbook has to have clear point of view, this is not also for the students but also for the teachers. Textbook is like guiding for teacher and students.
9. Textbook has to be able to give emphasizing on the value of students’ age (children value or adult value). Good textbook has able to give emphasizing on the value of students’ age because at that age students easier to imitate what the students get it, so with focusing on the value of students’ age good textbook can give good examples.
10. Textbook has to appreciate individual differences of students. Good textbook has to appreciate individual differences of students because each student came from different background, culture and level so good textbook can covered all the students’ differences.
2.6 Relevant Study
In this part, the writer states the relevant research which is possible in adding the readers’ view on the textbook used. In this instance, actually the writer never found out or listened about the same research on the textbooks used. However, the writer found one research that is relevant with the recent study, that was done by Widya (2006).
There is no teaching learning situation is complete until it has its relevant textbook. It means that the textbook itself is created right just before the curriculum, or the curriculum creates the textbook, which is relevant. Even most of time, textbook and the curriculum are created in the quite same time. It is because that the curriculum and the textbook are integrated and as a range of system in teaching and learning.
The textbook itself helps the teachers to teach their students systematically. Grant (in Widya 2006) explain that, most of general English teachers find some difficulties in teaching material without a textbook. For teachers, a textbook is needed. It is may be a different thing for ESP classroom that needs of the learners. But if there are teachers that do not need a textbook, they probably have plenty of time to prepare the material or they are genius people.
2.7 Theoretical Framework
Textbook used is the most important is teaching learning process. Learning without textbook is empty action an active process to get the information from the book. Therefore, the teacher should have purpose of textbook used in teaching learning process in classroom. In textbook used the students can apply some techniques and strategies which are matching with the target of learning with used textbook because without book is not easy activity, in order they can understand in teaching learning process.
The textbooks are used for the first year students of SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and the first year students of MTs. NW Menceh, there are differences and similarities from one another. In this case, the teachers are needed to prepare themselves as part of the system. The teacher needs to prepare themselves as a facilitator and mediator. Teachers need to be creative to make interesting material so the students can be interested.
In this chapter, the writer discusses about research design, research object, sampling technique, research instrument and data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
In this research, the writer used comparative method, which method that used to compare two or more variables or events. Comparative research will find the similarities or the differences of something, people, procedure of work, ideas… (Arikunto, 1998: 247).
3.2 Research Object
The object of this research is the textbook used for the first year students at SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and for those at MTs. NW Menceh academic year of 2008/2009.
3.3 Sampling Technique
Populations of the study are the textbooks used for the first year students of SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and MTs. NW Menceh academic year 2008/2009. For this reason, the technique of sampling is purposive (sampling).
3.4 Data Collection Procedure
In order to obtain data needed in this research, the writer uses the following methods:
Interview is a method, which is used to gain the data by making face-to-face communication. In relation to this, it is said that interview is method to gain the data by oral question.
Questionnaire is established for English teacher to gather the data about choosing a good textbook. The questionnaire used in this research, consisted of closed-ended and open-ended questions.
3. Secondary resources
Secondary resources are the method to seek the data such as notes, transcripts, book, magazines, etc.
3.5 Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the writer investigated the textbook. According to Strading (2001) in Nicholls (2006) there are 4 steps to follow, namely:
1. The writer identified the textbooks for the first year students used by the students of SMPN 1 Sakra Timur and MTs. NW Menceh.
2. The writer compared the textbooks in order to find out the similarities or the differences between them. If the textbooks are different one from another the writer identified what their difference are.
3. In this step the writer analyzed the textbooks. The writer Neville Grant evaluation. There are three stages of evaluation, they are as follows:
a. Initial evaluation
In this evaluation the writer used CATALYST test. This test has been explained in the review of related literature. The writer used CATALYST test to identify whether or not the textbooks used in the classroom are suitable. In this evaluation the writer gave questionnaire to the teacher, following the procedure on CATALYST test.
b. Detailed evaluation
In this evaluation, the writer will use questionnaire to find out the answer of the following questions:
1) Does the course suit their students?
2) Does it suit teacher?
3) Does it suit the syllabus?
c. In-use evaluation
In this evaluation the writer interviewed the teacher to support the information above and to evaluate whether or not the textbooks work in classroom.
4. At least the writer analyzed the textbooks used in both schools in terms of their relevance the students’ needs and curriculum expectation.
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