kumpulan skripsi bahasa inggris REDUPLICATION PROCESS OF MENO-MENE DIALECT IN RENSING


 REDUPLICATION PROCESS OF MENO-MENE DIALECT

IN RENSING



MOTTO



Friends are the most valuable
wealth in the world



DEDICATION



This thesis is dedicated to:
My beloved parents, brothers, my sisters
and my best friends.


ABSTRACT

Amni Muslihah Rihul, 2006. Reduplication Process of Meno-Mene dialect of Rensing. Thesis English Language Program, Departement of Language and Art in Education, STKIP HAMZANWADI Selong.
                                               Advisors    (1) Ahmad Zam-Zam, S.Pd, M.Hum,
                                                                  (2) Zulkipli, S.Pd

Key Words:     Reduplication process, dialect Meno-mene

Reduplication in Meno-mene dialect can be derived from noun, verb, adjective, adverb. While, reduplication is process of repetition base word partially and completely.
            furthermore, this study express two problems: (1) How many types of Reduplications in Meno-mene dialect in Rensing? (2) What are the functions of Reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing? Then, this study is aimed of (1) describing the types of Reduplication Meno-mene dialect of Rensing, (2) describing the functions of Reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing.
            This study is qualitative research. The method of collection data is by recording from the spoken utterance and field notes. The method of data analysis is conducted by collecting, identifying and applying the data into analysis. In applying the data into analysis, the writer used the Sasak reduplication system parameters proposed by Thoir (1984) as the conceptual framework and the result of the study shown that in Rensing, there are two types of reduplication that can be form in Meno-mene dialect in Rensing, they are: full and partial reduplication. The function of reduplication in Meno-mene dialect in Rensing can be intensifier, plurality or repetition.


ABSTRAKSI

Muslihah Rihul Amni. 2006. Proses Reduplikasi dalam Dialek Meno-mene di Rensing. Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) HAMZANWADI Selong, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Program Study Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris.
                                               Pembimbing     (1) Ahmad Zam-Zam, S.Pd, M.Hum,
                                                                        (2) Zulkipli, S.Pd

Kata Kunci : Reduplikasi, dialek Meno-mene

Reduplikasi dalam dialek Meno-mene berasal dari kata benda, kata kerja, kata sifat dan kata keterangan. Dimana, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan jenis dan fungsi dari reduplication. Sementara Reduplikasi itu adalah proses pengulangan kata dasar, baik sebagian atau keseluruhan.
            Selanjutnya, penelitian ini merumuskan dua masalah: (1) Berapa jenis Reduplikasi dalam dialek Meno-mene di Rensing? (2) Apa fungsi Reduplikasi dalam dialek Meno-mene di Rensing? Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: (1) Menggambarkan jenis-jenis Reduplikasi dalam dialek Meno-mene di Rensing, (2) Menggambarkan  fungsi Reduplikasi dalam dialek Meno-mene di Rensing.
            Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian qualitative dimana penelitian qualitative adalah mencoba menggambarkan dan menemukan phenomena social. Dalam mengumpulkan data peneliti menggunakan tape recording dan field notes.
            Dalam field notes peneliti menemukan dua jenis reduplikasi antara lain reduplikasi penuh dan sebagian. Contohnya: bale à bale-bale adalah contoh dari reduplikasi penuh dan bao à bebao-bao adalah contoh dari reduplikasi sebagian.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

            Praise to be Allah the most gracious and the most Merciful, caused of his abundant blessings that this thesis could be complied on time. Peace and blessing be upon our prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, companions for their invaluable struggle to protect the existent of the Islamic society and family.
            In this opportunity, the writer would like to say the greatest appreciation gratuitous and indebtedness goes to M. Zam Zam, S.Pd M.Hum and Zulkipli, S.Pd respectively first and second advisor, not only for their valuable and patient supervisor, guidance and encouragement in times of hardship, but also for individual help and kindness of excellent academic lecturing and personal interactions.
            Also, indebted to lecturers at the English language program, the head Department of Language and Art Education, the staff of the English language program for their helpful and friendly service.
            Finally, love and endless gratitude to beloved parents, brother, and sister and all of friends whom give support and constant prayer, May Allah bless them all. Amin.

Pancor, ………………… 2006

Writer






CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION


            This chapter discusses and presents about background of the problem, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scopes and limitation of the study and definition of key terms.
1.1.  Background of the Problem
            Language is used to communicate, language consists of many aspects such as: phonology, syntax and also semantic. There are many local language in Indonesia, one of them is Sasak. It is used to communicate in Lombok. Sasak language which is spread and used in Lombok island consists of some dialects. Thoir (1989: 11) states that Sasak is divided into five dialects. These five dialects are: Ngeno-Ngene dialect found in East Lombok (Selaparang), Meno-mene dialect in Pejanggik and surrounding areas, Meriak-meriku around Pujut, Kuto-kute around Bayan, and Nggeto-nggete in Suralaga and Sembalun region. Rensing is included in Meno-mene dialects. Furthermore, Esser (1994: 14) stated that Sasak is generally classified as a part of Austronesian language family and it is classified in western Malago Polynesian.
            The writer focuses her research on one of the above dialects namely: Meno-mene dialect in which used by East Lombok society. Rensing belong to Sakra Barat district and located in East Lombok. In Meno-mene dialect of Rensing it is found a lot of reduplication of words. Reduplication is the process of repetition of word partially and completely, for examples are: bale-bale (houses). Reduplication is one of morphological process. It  is the process of forming a base word by another word. The example of morphological process: books. Reduplication in Meno-mene dialect is mostly the same as Indonesian reduplication but there are one or two differences in Sasak Meno-mene dialect (SMD) such as prefixes and suffixes.
            The writer discusses about Meno-mene dialect in reduplication of Sasak language because the background of the writer is Sasak and speaks Sasak language in this case the writer intends to obtain the data. The writer is also able to interact with language society in Meno-mene dialects.
1.2.  Statement of the Problems
            Related to the problem on reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing, the researcher intends to find out the answers of some research questions.
  1. How many types of reduplication are in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing?
  2. What are the functions of reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing?
1.3.  Objectives of the Study
            This study is concentrated on the following objectives:
  1. To describe the types of reduplication Meno-mene dialect of Rensing.
  2. To describe the functions of reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing.
1.4.  Significances of the Study
This study can be expected significant, theoretically and practically.
1.4.1.      Theoretically
1.      The research result are able to make clear reduplication process of Meno-mene dialect.
2.      The research results have contribution towards the development of linguistic knowledge primary for morphological field.
3.      The result of the research can be as reference for the next researchers who are interested in conducting the research about morphology.
1.4.2.      Practically
The result of the research are hoped useful for language, society especially for who has the interesting in morphological study.
1.5.  Scopes and Limitation of the Study
            The scope of this study is limited to the discussion about reduplication on the base words, affixes forms, and compound words in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing.
1.6.  Definition of Key Terms
            To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation among the readers the researcher gives definition to the following terms as follows:
1.      Reduplication process is process of repetition of the base words partially and completely.
2.      Meno-mene dialect is one of the Sasak language user by people in Rensing.



CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter describes about definition of morphology, morphological process, definition of morpheme, definition of reduplication, function of reduplication and kinds of reduplication.
2.1.       Definition of Morphology
            Language consists of some aspects and morphology is one of these aspects. While morphology is a set of rules with dual functions, first theme responsible for word formation, the formation of new word, second they represent the speaker unconscious knowledge of the internal structure of the already existing of the language (O’Grady, 1991: 91). According to Verhaar, (2001:98), morphology is the identification unit of language as grammatical unit. While, Ramlan (2001: 11) stated that morphology is a study about formation of words that appear as grammatical event of grammatical meaning.
Based on the explanation above, morphology is a study about formation of word with grammatical and contextual. Morphology deals with the internal structure of complex words. The words of language can be divided into two broad categories those are closed and open morphology. The closed category is the function of words, which consist of pronoun like you and she; conjunction like and, if and because, determine like a and the and a few others, while the open category of words consists of noun (N), verb (V), adjective (adj) and adverb (adv), (O’Grady, 1991: 89).
            While O’Grady (1991:89) also stated that there are two basic types of word in human language i.e. simple word and complex word. Simple word is a word which cannot be broken down into smaller meaning, while complex word can be analyzed into constituent parts.
2.1.1.      Morphological Process
            According to Ramlan (in Haimun, 2004: 49), Morphological process is forming words from the base forms. While Samsuri in Haimun (2004: 60) stated that morphological process is a way of words by combining one morpheme with another morpheme. Based on the explanation above morphological process is a process of forming base words from another unit of words.
            Morphological process divided into three processes: Reduplication process, affixation process and compounds process. Reduplication is partial and complete base word semantically and grammatically. According to Thoir (1989: 14) reduplication may come from single word and complex word, single word consist of base word, while complex word consist of word with affixation word and compound word. Affixation process is the process of growing affixes into elements of words, and compound process is process of combining one words with another word.
2.1.2.      Morphemic Reduplication
            According to Ramlan (in Haimun, 2004: 63), reduplication is a repetition of a grammatical unit, it can be with or without a change of phoneme. The resent of repetition called reduplication, while the repealed base is called base form.

For example in Indonesia:
¨      Anak       à      anak-anak
¨      Sunyi       à      sunyi senyap
            The example of number one shows that noun morpheme in morpheme reduplication that change the meaning from singular into plural. Number two is example of compound reduplication. The base word is “sunyi”, the meaning is change after putting the new word “senyap” the new word shows intensity of word “sunyi” (quiet).
2.2.       Morphemes
            Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit. Morpheme can be divided into two groups i.e.: free morpheme and bound morpheme. Free morpheme can constitute a word by itself, and bound morpheme must be attached to another element. The morpheme house, for example is free since it can be used as a word on its own: plural-s, on the other hand is bound (O’Grady, 1991:94).
            While Yule (1981:60) stated that free morpheme is a morpheme which can stand by itself as a single word, while bound morpheme is a morpheme which cannot stand alone. The free morpheme can be generally considered as the set of separate English word-form. When it is used with bound morpheme, theadjectives and verb, which we think of as the words which carry the “content of messages we convey. These free morpheme are called lexical morpheme for example: boy, man, house, tiger.
            The other group of free morphemes are called functional morpheme for example: and, but, when, because, on, near. This set largely consist of functional word in the language such as: conjunction, preposition, articles, and pronoun.
            According to Yule (1981:61), bound morphemes can be divided into two types, derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes. Derivational morpheme, is morpheme which is used to form new words in the language and it is often form a word of a different grammatical categories from stem. Suffixes and prefixes included to derivational morpheme. While inflectional morpheme is morpheme, which is used to produce new word in the language, but rather to indicate the aspect of grammatical function of word.
            The example of inflectional morpheme: The boy’s wildness shocked the teachers.
The                   boy                -s                   wild         -ness
(functional)      (lexical)         (inflectional) (lexical)   (derivational)
shock                - ed                the                 teach       -er                     -s
(lexical)            (inflectional) (functional)   (lexical)   (inflectional)    (inflectional)
            Sasak language also has free morpheme and bound morpheme. Free morpheme can be found on the word “bale” (house). In the morpheme process, the word “bale” can be repeated become “bale-bale” while bound morpheme can be found in suffix    -suffix “ng”- It can be attached with the word “empok” become “ngempok-empok”. It has meaning is strike.
2.2.1.      Reduplication
            According to Pateda (1983:143), reduplication is one of many result of morphological process. While Ramlan (2000:11), stated that reduplication is repetition of grammatical combination of all parts in a variation of phoneme or not.
            Furthermore, Simatupang (1983:11) stated that derivational process is morpheme process which change category class of word that attach to. Reduplication can be found in free contexts and bound contexts, but the writer just discussed about derivational of reduplication. Reduplication process derived from base words, affixed words, base compound words, and affixes compound words.
2.2.2. Function of Reduplication
            According to Rosen (1987:11), there are three functions of reduplication i.e.:
1)      Distributive force indefiniteness
Distributive force indefiniteness, which can also be called diffuseness, distributive force involves cases in which the goal of the verb is not definite and indefinite pronoun like “someone” and “anyone” which do not refer to specific person. Based on the explanation above distributive force indefiniteness refer to definite indefinite. On the other hand diffuseness is not the same as plurality but refers to specific person.
2)      Simile involves to the case in which the verb mean to be like “something” which contain the idea of subject.
This function can be manifested in Indonesian by different combination of the grammatical process, one process is affix pair ke-an and reduplication applied to adjectives. Based on the explanation above simile refer to concrete nouns and adjective.
3)      Intensiveness
Intensiveness includes to the cases that convey the idea of approaching limit. This function emphasis to the verb reduplicated.
2.2.3. Kinds of Reduplication
            According to Soedjono Dardjowidjojo (1986:14), reduplication divided into two groups i.e.: functional reduplication and accidental reduplication. Functional reduplication is repetition of base word completely and partially and has a semantic relation, while accidental is repetition of base word, but there is no semantic relation. Based on the explanation above, functional reduplication is repetition of base word partially and completely and have semantic relation. While accidental reduplication is repetition of base word that has no semantic relation. For example: se-olah-olah “as if, se-akan-akan” as if and ber-pura-pura” pretend.
            However, since these form seem to have a strong semantic relation with other verb when the word repeated it has the meaning “to pretend” it is included to the category of functional reduplication.
            While, Simatupang (1983:16 – 18) divided reduplication into two groups i.e.: morphemic reduplication and the semantic reduplication. Morphemic reduplication divided into two parts too i.e.: full of reduplication and part of reduplication. Full of reduplication is repetition of all base forms without changing of phoneme and there is no combination by affixes process. While, part of reduplication is repetition part of base form.
1.      Morphemic reduplication
Full of reduplication
1.1.1        Reduplication without affix
Anak-anak : (stem reduplication)
Childs

1.1.2        Reduplication with affixes
a.       Reduplication with prefix
Memukul-mukul : (stem + reduplication me-)
Often to strike
b.      Reduplication with simulfix
Hormat-menghormati : (stem + reduplication + me-i)
Respect each other
c.       Reduplication with suffix
Besar-besaran : (stem + reduplication + -an)
To compare something which one more big.
d.      Reduplication with infix
Gilang-gemilang : (stem + reduplication + -em)
            Bright / shinning
Full of reduplication by changing phoneme.
Reduplication change of consonant without affix
Sayur-mayur : (stem + R change of consonant)
Many kind of vegetables
Bolak-balik : (stem + R change of vocal)
Come and go
Reduplication change of consonant with affix
Beramah-ramah : (stem + R change of consonant + ber)
To be friendly
Reduplication change of consonant with simulfix
Keramah-tamahan : (stem + R change of consonant + ke-an)
Hospitality
2.      Part of reduplication
Part of reduplication with affix
Dedaunan : (stem + part of reduplication + -an)
Many leafs
           In Sasak language, parts of reduplication with affix –an to form plural in Indonesian language is not needed in Sasak language, but plural can be formed through repetition of the first syllable of the words without prefix-an.
3.      Semantic reduplication
Semantic reduplication without affix
Sopan-santun
Very polite
Semantic reduplication with affix
Menghancur-leburkan : (stem + semantic reduplication + me-kan)
Some of these reduplications can be found in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing.
2.4.  Theoretical Framework
            Morphological process is a way of forming by combining one morpheme with another morpheme, whereas Reduplication is one of morphological process. Reduplication is process of repetition a base words partially and completely. (Rosen, 1987: 12). Furthermore, Reduplication is repetition of grammatical combination all part in variation of phoneme or not (Ramlan, 1992: 1).
            Reduplication derived from adjective, verb, adverb, noun and the function of reduplication defends on the types of words and categories words. Whereas reduplication not change categories of words.
            The reduplications happen with the affixation process and together support the function of reduplication (Ramlan, 1997: 73).
Definition of Dialect
            Dialect is the different variation of language that is caused by different location or area. According to Haryanto dialect is variation of standard language because different structure and sound. Furthermore (Keraf, 1979: 19) states that dialect is unity of idiolects which is marked by the characteristic in sound, word, and utterance. Based on explanation above, dialect is one of variation language that is caused by different location or area.
Types of Dialect
            Lombok islands consists of some dialects. Dialects used in Lombok island Sasak tribe consists of four dialect, they are: Selaparang dialect, Pejanggik dialect, Pujut dialect, and Petung Bayan dialect. Thoir (1989: 11) states that Sasak is divided into five dialects. These five dialects are: Ngeno-ngene dialect, found in East Lombok (Selaparang), Meno-mene dialect in Petung Bayan, Meriak-Meriku around Pujut, Kuto-kute around Petung Bayan, and Nggeto-nggete in Suralaga and Sembalun region. Each of regions used different dialect it depend on the region.




CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

            This chapter describes about research design, data and source of data, instrument of the research, technique of collecting data, data analysis and the trustworthiness of data.
3.1.       Research Design
            This research is categorized into descriptive research. Descriptive research tries to describe about research object, focus in the fact, find the fact of life (Hadary, 1998: 73). It means that descriptive tries finding, analyzing and giving the conclusion of the data which have been found. This study included qualitative research, while qualitative research aims at finding, exploring and evaluating the trustiness of education by using scientific method (Hadi, 1981: 63). Therefore the qualitative research focuses on the process of finding and answering the research problem. According Ary (2002: 426) research design is the researcher plan of how to process an understanding of some group or some phenomenon in its natural setting. The design began with general statement of a research problem or topic. Furthermore, Guba (1985: 224) states that there are some steps of research design: determine focuses of research, determine technique of research, determine collect of research and determine of data analysis.
3.2.       Type of Data and Source of Data
            The respondent of this study is people in Rensing areas that use Sasak language Meno-mene dialect. In this case, the research obtained the data from people in Rensing, and the number of respondent were selected base on age. Because of the result of research would maximum and can be achieved, their age about 17. In which criteria of the respondent are native people of Rensing, and using Sasak language Meno-mene dialect.
3.3.       Instrument of Research
            In this study, the writer as key instrument of research because the writer directly involved in this research. The writer used tape recorder, and the field notes, and the result of recording would written in Sasak language. The recording carried out to collect the data about reduplication process in Meno-Mene dialect in Rensing, and the aim of recording is to collect the data from language user of Meno-mene dialect in the form of spoken utterance.
3.4.       Technique of Collect the Data
            The data obtained through recording and field notes. In which in the recording the researcher not directly record conversation of the respondent and the researcher not interview but only recording. Recording contain of informal conversation.
3.4.1.      Recording
Basically, the recording is process of record conversation of respondent. The recording deals with utterance of respondent. In this case, recording data are obtained through interviewing process and field notes. In the field of the study, this recording will mainly contribute to get verbal data or dialogues that cannot be understood directly by the respondent.
3.4.2.      Field Notes
            The most common of recording the data, collected during observation is field notes, the researcher may make brief notes during the observation. The contain of the filed notes what the researcher seen and heard. Field notes in this study with the result of recording.
3.5.       Data Analysis
            Generally, data analysis in this study is conducted by reducing the data, displaying data, drawing conclusion and verifying the data (Nasution, 1998: 10). This study uses descriptive comparative method. The aim of this method is to describe reduplication process in Meno-mene dialect, and the writer tries to analyze function and types of reduplication that can be found in Meno-mene dialect in Rensing.
            In applying the data into analysis, the writer tend to use descriptive comparative analysis method. According to Sujudi (1978: 40), comparative method is to find the similarity and difference among object, idea, people, procedure and work. This method conducts some steps:
-          Collecting the data related to reduplication.
-          Identifying word/phrases included as reduplication.
-          Making comparison between reduplication in Rensing language and reduplication in Indonesian language.
3.6.       Trustworthiness of Data
            In determining the trustworthiness of data, it is needed some technique. However in this research the triangulation technique is used to check the trustworthiness of data description and the result of investigation. Then, in this study there were two ways of triangulation of data that is researcher, those were:  utilizing data source, method of data collection.
            In the collection the data, the writer used tape recorder and field notes, whereas, recording deals with the utterance of respondent and field notes contains the result of recording.
            According to Moleong (2000: 173) trustworthiness of data constitute of the important concept which construction from validity and reliability concept.


CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION

            This chapter presents the result of research and discussion about reduplication process. This chapter consist of (4.1) Research result, (4.1.1) Types and Function of Reduplication, and (4.2.) Discussion.
4.1.       Research Result
Types and Function of Reduplication
            Reduplication process is process of repetition a base words partially and completely. Reduplication process not change category of word, and not change meaning of words. In Meno-mene dialect, reduplication process is found in prefixes and suffixes, and confixes form, while infixixes is not found on it prefixes are the affixes that are clung to the base form of the word in front position of the word, whereas suffixes are the affixes that are adhering in the end position of the word.
            Reduplication process that are found on Meno-mene dialect, they are full and partial reduplications. Reduplication maybe comes from single word and complex word. There are some categories that can be reduplicated in Meno-mene dialect, they are: noun, verb, adjective and adverb base forms of these word categories can form full or partial reduplication. Word bale-bale is the example of full duplication, and be bao-bao is the example of partial reduplication, the reduplication that derived from prefix, whereas functions of Reduplication depends on types and categories of words. The functions as intensifier, repetition-plural.
4.2.       Discussions
            Meno-mene dialect is one of dialect in Sasak language. It is a predominant dialect, which is most widely used by Lombok people and is understood by most Sasak speakers, about ninety percent of Lombok people have some knowledge of Sasak language and use it in their daily life. Meno-mene dialect separated on west, central and part of east Lombok. The Sasak language actually is the only spoken language, so there are very few almost nothing references or books that are available in written form. The reason of this case may be because by the minimal of Sasak speakers use it for written purposes and also caused by Sasak language is not used in government or the law, beside in it used there is no special official language for Sasak. So the last Sasak language is difficult to identity its standard. Eventhough Sasak language has not standard language, it doesn’t that mean Sasak language or its dialect not the grammatical language. The writer would be discussion about types and function of reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing.
            In Meno-mene dialect there are two types of reduplication that are full and partial reduplication. These two types of reduplication can be formed from noun, adjective, verb, and adverb. In Sasak Meno-mene dialect of Rensing, reduplication may come from single word and complex word.
4.2.1.      Types of Reduplication in dialect Meno-Mene in Rensing
Full and partial reduplication can be formed from base noun and affixed noun. The function of full and partial reduplication on base and affixed noun are semantically plurality and intensifier but it does not category of the words.

4.2.1.1.Types of Noun Reduplication (R) in base
Reduplication by repeating the base morpheme as the base form is called full reduplication. For example:
1.      a.    bale          bale-   bale
house (n)      house  Red. houses (n)
         b.   Solah’n        bale- bale’n da
beautiful      your  houses  
‘Your houses  are beautiful
2.      a.    Tangkong - tangkong
cloth (n)      cloth Red. clothes (n)
b.   Ku  lalu  beli   tangkong – tangkong  sak  no
I     go     buy  Red (plurality) cloth    that one
‘I will go to buy cloth that one’
The Function of the reduplication above by repeating the base morphemes are semantically plural in clause. This function of reduplication (1) and (2) are intensifier semantically plural in clause.
4.2.1.2.Types of Noun Reduplication  in Prefix + Base-Prefix + Base
            The reduplication that is formed from prefix + base can be in form of full reduplication. For examples:
3.      a.    lakoq    pe-      lakoq
ask (v)      prefix  ask
         b.   pelakoq→   pelakoq- pelakoq
request (n)  Red. many of request (n)
c.    Mahal         pelakoq – pelakoq   mele na
Expensive   request                    do you want
What is expensive request do you want
4.      a.    sakit  → peny- (s) akit
sick (adj)      prefix (n) sick
b.   sakit  → sakit-sakit
disease (n) disease Red-disease (n)
c.    bareh side si sakit-sakit
    latter you will plural sick

The reduplications such in (3) are called full reduplications. This reduplication happen by fully reduplicating the affixed noun. The function of this full reduplication is semantically plural. This reduplication does not change categories of the word.
4.2.1.3.Types of Noun Reduplications in suffix (Confix te- -an)
            Noun reduplication in form of prefix + base suffix (confix) + base, can form partial reduplication that semantically plural that show many kinds of base and intensifier in clause. For examples:
5.      a.    talet →     tetalet–           tetalet
plant (v)   prefix  plant    suffix
b.   tetaletan ↔   tetalet-        taletan
plants (n)      plant            Red. plants (n)
c.    Ape    talet-   taletan          inaq      te
what   plant   Red. Plural   mother here
‘What kinds of plants mother in here’
6.      a.    dagang  → dagangan
seller (n)  seller suffix
b.   dagangan  → dagang-dagangan
thing for sale (n)  seller Red suffix
c.    dagang-dagang-an sai ni
seller  Red. plural  who
Whose things are these’
Reduplications such in (5) and (6) is formed by taking an affixation on the base verb, after being affixed then entered noun are reduplicated into a partial reduplication. The function of this reduplication is semantically plural showing many kinds. The affixation changed word category but the reduplication it self does not change word category.
4.2.1.4.Types of Verb Reduplication  in Base
            Verb reduplication can be in forming of full and partial reduplication. It can be formed from a base verb and affixed verb. Full reduplication on verb base can be with or without a change of phoneme. For examples:
7.      a.    tokon    tokon- tokon
sit             sit       Red. keep easy
         b.   Arak  to  ta   tokon-token        leq   bale’n da.
There is        sit      intensifier  loc    houses
There is a sit down your houses
6.      a.    momot ↔  momot- momot
easy           easy      Red. keep easy
b.   Aku  momot- momot               leq  balen’ ke
I       easy      Red. intensifier  loc. House
I am keeping easy in my house
The example in (7) and (8) are full reduplication without changing categories of the word. The function of reduplication in (7) and (8) are intensifier. This reduplication does not change categories of the word.
Full reduplication on verb bellow is followed by changing phoneme. For example :
9.      a.    balik ↔   balik- belah
break (v)  break  Red. break intensifier (v)
b.   roana demen ite balik belah leq balen da
I like break in my house
When the reduplication takes the base morpheme balik in (9) changed of phoneme a on the first syllable and I on the syllable become e on the first syllable and a on the second syllable. The function of reduplication in (9) shown intensifier.
4.2.1.5.Types of Verb Reduplication  in Prefix + Base
            The reduplication that is formed from prefix + base can be in form of partial reduplication. Before reduplication happens, affixation taking place the reduplication happens by repeating the base morpheme of the affixed verb. For examples:
10.    kakoq   ngakok-ngakoq.
Beat           Red. prefix  you
‘latter I will beat you’
11.    singgaq  → ny (S) inggaq
borrow (v)  prefix  borrow
nyinggaq  → nyinggaq-nyinggaq
borrow         prefix Red. borrow
side nyinggaq-nyinggaq tangkong ta doang
you  prefix Red. borrow clothes
‘you are borrow my clothes’
         The reduplication such in (10) and (11) called full reduplication. This reduplication happens by putting prefix on the base morpheme verb. The function of reduplication in (10) and (11) are intensifier shown repeatedly. This reduplication does not change categories of the word.
4.2.1.6.Types of Verb Reduplication in Prefix + Base Prefix + Base
12.    singgaq"ny –(s) inggaq
borrow  (V) n + prefix. Borrow.
Ø  Nyinggaq " nyinggaq – nyinggaq
Ø  Side nyingaq – nyinggak tangkong ta doang
    You red        Red borrow     clothes
Ø  You are borrow my clothes
The reduplication such in happen by faltering prefix on the basic morpheme verb. The function of reduplication in (V) are intensifier shown repeatedly. This reduplication does not change categories of the word.
4.2.1.7.Types of Verb Reduplication in Basic Compound
            Reduplication by repeating full of base compound is called ful reduplication. The following examples are reduplication that formed  base compound –base compound  these are :
13. - entun taik " entun taik - entun taik
         down VP (V) down VP (Red . down up repeatedly (V)
      - endek – ta to entun taik-entun taik leq balen da
        can                   down up                   loc your haouse
‘I can not down up in your house’
            The function of reduplication  in (13) are repetition  shows intensifier. This reduplication does not change categories of the word. The basic form of full reduplication on the base compound verb comes from the basic morpheme compound the verb. The bellow  examples are full of reduplication like (13).
14. - sumpaq senaq " sumpaq senaq –sumpak senaq
  say the  bad word  (v) say the bad red say the bad word (v)
- Sumpaq senaq – sumpaq – senaq siq inaq laun
  say the bad word red – Rep / intensifier / mother latter
15. - rame retak " rame retaq – rame retaq
- rame retak –rame retak dengan merariq lek to 
very noise red people married  loc there
  ‘ in there the people married noisy’
The basic form sumpaq senaq in (14) comes from compound verb. The function of reduplication in (14) and (15) is repetition shown intensifier. The reduplication in (14) and (15) does not change category of the word.
4.2.1.8.Types of Adjective Reduplication in Base
            Reduplication by repeating the base morpheme as the base form are called full reduplication. The following are reduplication that formed base and basa adjective.
16.   a.  bireng ↔   bireng –bireng
black (adj)  black  Red. Many people/things are black (adj)
b.    Bireng –bireng               adik
Black   Red. plur./inten.  Brother
‘Your brother are black
17.   a.  inges ↔           inges        -inges
beautiful (adj)  beautiful  Red. many girls are beautiful (adj)
b. Inges       -inges                 adik
Beautiful Red. plur./inten. Brother
Your brother are beautiful’
The function of reduplication in (16) and (17) are semantically plural shows intensifier. This reduplication does not change categories of the word.
18.   a.  ceredeh ↔ ceredeh -ceredeh
cute (adj)    small     Red. many things/things that look cute (adj)
b.    ceredeh –ceredeh,   tangkong  tie
cute   Red. singular  clothe      that
‘That clothes are cure’
Reduplication on by in (18) is semantically shown is intensifier.
4.2.1.9.Types of Adjective Reduplication in Base + Suffix-Base + Suffix
            Reduplication by repeating affixed adjective is called full reduplication. The following examples are reduplication that is formed from base + suffix-base + suffix.
19.   a.  jigah →     jigah -an
fresh (adj) fresh  suffix
b.    jigahan ↔ jigahan-jigahan
fresher (adj) fresher Red. Many thing/people are fresher (adj)
c.    Jigahan-jigahan    sayur no
Fresh comparative  Red. Plurality vegetable than   
That vegetables are fresh’
20.   a.  puteq →     puteq-an
white (adj)  white suffix
b.    pute’an ↔  pute’an        pute’an
whiter (adj) more white  Red. any thing/people are whiter (adj)
c.    Tangkong sak  puteq – puteqan  no
Clothes            white    Red. suffix that
The clothe are white’
Reduplication such in (19) and (20) happen by taking an affixation on the base morpheme, after being affixed then affixed adjective are repeated become full reduplication. The base form of full reduplication on affixed adjective comes from affixed adjective. Suffix –an in (19) and (20) are comparative showing plurality.  
4.2.1.10.   Types of Adverb Reduplication in Base-Base
            Adverb reduplication can be in form of a base-base morpheme. For examples:
21.  a. lemaq → lemaq -               lemaq
          tomorrow (adv) tomorrow Red. Uncertain day (adv)
      b. Lemaq-lemaq  ku                 lalo   jok  bale’n da
         Tomorrow Red. intensifier   go    loc   house   
         ‘I will go to your house’
22.   a.  malem ↔malem - malem
evening   evening Red. at the night
b.    Dendek  ulek  malem-malem
Don’t    go      tomorrow / Red. intensifier
Don’t go tomorrow’
The base form of full reduplication on the base adverb comes from the base morpheme adverb. Reduplication in (21) by repeating full of the base morpheme has intensifier function. The reduplication does not change categories of the word.
4.2.1.11.   Types of Adverb Reduplication in Prefix + Base-Base 
23.   a.  bian →              ke-     bian
afternoon (adv) prefix afternoon
b.    Kebian- kebian            kemele  uleq
afternoon /intensifier   want     go
We go tomorrow’
24.   a.  lemaq →           ke-      lemaq
tomorrow (adv) prefix tomorrow
b.    kelemaq ↔                kelemaq -lemaq
in the morning (adv) morning Red. in the early morning (adj)
c.    Kelemanq – lemaq, ku          lalo  jok  bale
Intensifier   Red. tomorrow  go    loc.  House
I want go your house tomorrow’
Reduplication in (23) and (24) happen by putting a suffix on the base morpheme adverb, after putting the suffix then the base morpheme is repeated become partial reduplication. The function of reduplication in (23) and (24) are intensifier. These reduplications doesn’t change category of the word.
4.2.1.12.   Types of Adverb Reduplication in Base- Repeating the Syllables
            Beside full reduplication on the base adverb, can also be found partial reduplication on base adverb. The reduplication by repeating the syllables. The examples below are reduplication that formed from base repeating the syllables adverb.
25.   a.  tengari ↔          tengari -tengari
afternoon (adv)  Red. adverb
b.    Tengari-tengari da     mele ulek
afternoon           you    want go
You want go afternoon ’
The base morpheme in (25) consists of three syllables tengari-ngari, the base form are repeated without the first syllable. The functions are intensifier.
4.2.2.      Function of Reduplication in Dialect Meno-Mene in Rensing
The function of reduplication in dialect Meno-mene in Rensing depends on types and categories of word.
4.2.2.1.Function of Noun Reduplication in Dialect Meno-Mene in Rensing
Reduplication by repeating the base morpheme as the base form is called full reduplication. For example:
§  Bale à bale-bale
House        houses
Solah’n bale-balen’da
Your houses are beautiful
            The function of the reduplication by repeating the base morpheme are semantically plural.
4.2.2.2.Function of Verb Reduplication in Dialect Meno-Mene in Rensing
Verb reduplication can be forming in forming of full and partial reduplication.
§  Tokon à tokon-tokon
Sit            sit red keep easy
Arak tok ta tokon-tokon leq balen’da
There is a sit down in your houses
            The function of reduplication in example above is intensifier.
4.2.2.3.Function of Adjective Reduplication in Dialect Meno-Mene in Rensing
Full and partial reduplication on adjective reduplication can be formed from base adjective.
§  Bireng à bireng-bireng
Black        black red. many people/think are black
§  Inges à inges-inges
Beautiful   beautiful red. Many girls are beautiful
4.2.2.4.Function of Adverb Reduplication in Dialect Meno-Mene in Rensing
Adverb reduplication can be in form full and partial reduplication, it can be formed from base adverb.
§  Lemaq à lemaq-lemaq
Tomorrow   tomorrow red. Uncertain day
§  Malem à malem-malem
Evening    evening red. At the night
            The function of reduplication in example above are intensifier.


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION

5.1.       Conclusion
            Based on the data analysis and the discussion in the previous chapter, the writer finally comes forward to the conclusion as follows:
1.      Reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing classified into two full and partial reduplications.
2.      The function of reduplications depends on the types of reduplication and the word categories, whereas the functions of reduplication in Meno-mene dialect of Rensing are: intensifier, semantically plural and repetition.
5.2.       Sugestion
            Many case that able to grow up from Sasak language and unable to present in this study, so, base on the problem, the researcher hopes to the next researchers to more deeply to do the study and analysis in Sasak language, whether on its internal or external aspects. Next, to another researchers are suggests to do development study of this work by supply their time to enlarge the object, enrich the sources, increase the quality of the research, and grow up the problems that unable to presents in this study.


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