THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING GAMES TO INCREASE STUDENT’S VOCABULARY: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AT THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMKN 1 MATARAM IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012
First of all, I want to express my deepest gratitude to Allah SWT who has given me chance, blessing and health so that I can finish my thesis proposal. And also to our prophet Muhammad SAW who always guides us from the darkness to the brightness.
In this chance, I would like to say my thank to Mr. L. Thohir, M.Pd. (the first consultant) who has given me his advises, guidance and suggestions in my thesis proposal arrangement. And also thank to Mr. Sudirman, S.Pd. (The second consultant) who has helped me in correcting and guiding me in my thesis writing. For both of the consultants the writer would like to say thank you very, your patience and your guidance in teaching us.
Finally, I would like to deliver my biggest appreciation and gratitude to my beloved parents who have supported me in everything, thanks for your pray. Also for both of my lovely brothers. And thanks for my friends who have given me supports in accomplishing my thesis proposal.
As there is no such thing quite perfect in the world, I honestly appreciate all constructive criticism for the completeness of this writing. Hopefully this writing will be valuable contribution toward the teaching of English especially in encouraging the students, teachers and their involvement of teaching and learning process especially in improving their English vocabulary.
A. Background of the Study
Talking about language, we have to talk about vocabulary. It means that a language cannot be separated from vocabulary, that is why the mastery of vocabulary is the most important aspect in acquiring a second language or foreign language. Now days English is almost used in all over the world; it is used as the first or second language. In Indonesia, English is used as a foreign language has been introduced since elementary school even in play groups. This fact shows us the importance of English.
English is a language that is commonly used in the world’s communication as in the international congress and gathering, we use English for making explanation, analyzing situation or discussing the relative merits of one producing and English is the language spoken by most people, although many people object to this. Vocabulary is essential to the development and demonstration of linguistics skills, and by learning vocabulary, it can be expected student’s test achievement will be better and measure the extent of this learning and encourage it to be apart of playing in instructional testing.
English has been taught as the first foreign language in Indonesia since earlier 1990s. (Fitria, 2007) it is one of foreign language that is used as a means of communication, according to Suyanto (2007:118) said that the definition of vocabulary “ is collective word owned by one language and gives the meaning if we use the language”. Vocabulary is a group of words that are typically used when discussing them. Actually, there are some ways to learn vocabulary, but in this case the researcher will explain about games specifically. Introducing some kinds of game to students is a good way to encourage the students in increasing their new vocabulary. The teacher can use several games such as; words from words, word chains, word pyramids. Furthermore, the researcher has some games that can be used in teaching vocabulary such as: miming game and password. From the teaching of those games, it is hoped that students are able to increase their vocabulary, besides teaching some kinds of game as mentioned above, the teacher should able to apply a good strategy which useful to encourage students in getting new vocabulary from games that they have learnt. When the teacher want to teach vocabulary to the students through games, the teacher can use some possibles and successful media, strategies, approaches, or methods for the classroom activities.
The effect of using games in teaching vocabulary provide opportunities for students to use their language skills in a less formal situation and the aims of using games in teaching vocabulary is a wide range to different some kinds of game and activities to their lesson and enable students to practice formally-learned language in a stimulating way. Vocabulary is important for the students of senior high school, in which having much vocabulary can help students in mastering the four language skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing skills well. As Budidharso (in Widyaningsih, 2008:3) stated that vocabulary is the main point to understand ideas and expression.
B. Statement of The Problem
Based on the background above, the reseacher would like to answer the following question below:
“is the use of games effective in teaching English vocabulary for first years students of SMKN 1 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012”.?
C. Purpose of The Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the effectiveness of using games in teaching vocabulary.
D. Scope of The Study
The research is focused on the use of games in increasing student’s vocabulary. The research is conducted at the first year students of SMKN 1 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012.
E. Significance of The Study
This study is hoped will be useful to:
a. Encourage the English teachers to use many kind of techniques in teaching English, for instance through games.
b. Help the students to learn English vocabulary easily through games.
c. Give more experience or input for readers that games can be used as a technique in teaching English vocabulary.
F. Hypothesis of The Study
The hypothesis set for the recent study is as tentative answer of the research problem. It comprises alternate hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (Ho). Alternate (Ha) as the hypothesis that states the relationship between experimental treatment that the researcher expects to emerge.
On the other hand, the null hypothesis which is no relationship between the experimental treatment that the researcher expects to emerge. So in this particular investigation, the hypothesis can easily be formulated as follows: The alternative hypothesis (Ha) : “Game is effective to increase student’s English vocabulary”. For statistical analysis the alternate hypothesis need to be changed into null hypothesis (Ho) which is read: “Game is not effective to increase student’s English vocabulary”.
G. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid the drawback or misunderstanding of some words in this research, it is important to give some explanations or definitions as follows:
According to Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines game is an activity or a sport with rules in which people or terms compete against each other. (Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary.(1995:553).
Increase is becoming or to make something greater in amount, number, value, etc. (Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 1995:688).
According to Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines vocabulary as a total number of the words, which make up a language and that person knows or use. (Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 1995: 1331-1506).
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Nature of The Language
Using language does not mean knowing or realizing a language, although everyone uses language in his/her life, however, not everyone understand the nature of language being used. Halliday (1985) states that language structure and language function are systematically related. These are several definitions of language made by linguists in order the readers know what language really is:
a. Language is a tool of systematic mean of communicating ideas, or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings. (Webster’s third new interaction dictionary of the English language, 1961:1270).
b. Language as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols which permit all people in a given culture or other people who have learnt the system of that culture to communicate or interact. (Finiocchiaro, 1964:8).
c. Language is highly organized system in which unit plays an important part, which related to each other. (Boey, 1982).
From the definition of language above, the most remarkable function of language is communication. Communication can be done directly and indirectly. Direct communication, involves situation where both communicators and interlocutors are in two ways. They may argue, agree or disagree by nodding their head or by shaking hands. In contrast, indirect communication refers to the act of communication, in which both communicators and interlocutors do not face one another. For instance, the reseacher and the reader try to ensure each other indirectly printings instrument as means for the reader to read the reseacher’s writing, and then here the communication process happens.
As we know that by language, we can speak about something and be understood by others who know the language. It means that we have the capability to produce sounds that signify certain meanings and to understand or interpret the sounds produced by others. It refers to in the normal-hearing individuals. However, in deaf situation, Fromkin et.al (1984:4) (in Fitria) states that, deaf persons produce and understand spoken language. In the other words, the deaf persons use the sign language to communicate with.
B. Language Skill
In this part, the researcher will tell about kinds of language skill in English i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing skills (Beyer, 1991a, 1991b; Bragstad and Stumpf, 1987; Luckie and Smethurst, 1998) stated that Human beings use language to express some communicative codes that happened in the past; that is happening in the present; or that may happen in the future. English as a compulsory subject learned at Junior, Senior High School up to University level has now been introduced to Elementary School’s pupils even in playgroups. It is considered that teaching English in senior high school especially vocational school will motivate and help them if they want to find a job after graduating their study.
Learning a foreign language is not a matter of acquiring a set of rules, and building a large vocabulary is one of the first thing that students should know. Knowing vocabulary will also cover the knowing of its articulation, meaning and how to use it to express an idea in communication. In fact, vocabulary cannot be separated from other language aspects or its four specific skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing skills.
The first skill is listening. In fact, every language skills correlate closely one to another in various ways. Listening skill is the skill that students and lecturer need to understand and others are organized in oral presentation (Devine, 1987).
Listening is one way to get the information about something new like vocabulary and difficult words. The students try to understand of listening. Listening is various types of listening, topics, styles and functions are delivered in informal and formal style. Listening is relatively difficult, authentic lectures and radio broadcast items will be introduced as practices in identifying main ideas, messages and details of information. An important factor in interactive listening is wether we are taking part in the interaction.
The second skill in learning English is speaking skill. We still remember how we master our mother tongue. That is the first language we use to communicate unconsciously that language was mastered from our childhood without any difficulties. The user’s knowledge about structures, rhythm and intonation were automatically applied in her/his speaking. Vocabulary and its usage were acqquired through her/his communication with the people surrounding without a learning process.
Krashen (1982) suggests, learners can often extract adequate meaning from aural messages by focusing on lexis and extra linguistic information and by passing syntatic processing.
Bygate (1987) suggests that oral interaction can be characterized in terms of routine, which are conventional and predictable ways of presenting information that can be focused on either information or interaction.
By that statements, the effective speaking involves all the intelligences. Teachers may make a point of using colorful or unusual vocabulary frequently, playing with funs, jokes, and riddles, or eloquently describing a personal experience, the classroom can provide a supportive environment for learning to speak effectively as teachers create a relaxed and positive atmosphere for students to converse and discuss ideas.
The third skill is reading skill. Reading is the second approach in gathering new information. So, To enhance the student’s reading ability in teaching and learning process, they should know what will they do before reading, during the reading and after the completion of reading because we should also be concerned with the developing of student’s vocabulary.
In Junior, Senior or Vocational High School teachers can also take the following five actions to help their student’s reading the content areas such as:
a. Pre-reading activities mean to activate period knowledge and help to motivate students to read.
b. During reading activities which are designed to help focus attention, and promote skills such as paraphrasing, summarizing, note taking, questioning, and relating the new.
c. Post reading activities are intended to encourage students to re-examine their reading perspective while providing opportunities to store the new material in memory.
d. Vocabulary development is markedly more effective than informal, unplanned growth.
e. Use the textbook will ease the students in improving their reading ability.
Beside that, reading skill also involves qualitatively different processes from the development of oral language ability; both are underpinned by certain principles. We have suggested that programmers for both oral and written language development take as their point of departure the purposes and functions to which language is put, and which determine its realization as text.
The fourth skill or the last skill is about writing skill. From the four language skills, writing is different from face to face communication; it is a set of productive and expressive activities. Writing is one of the language skill that is very different from other language skills because writing is commonly used as a three stage process: pre-writing, writing, and re-writing. They need to be shown how different text types are characterized by different generic structures in the case of narratives, the orientation-complication-resolution structure. They should also be given the opportunity to compare different version of a text and helped to see how the way in which information is organized within text will partly determine its effectiveness. Writing cannot be segregated from other language acts.
Halliday (1985b) suggests that writing has involved in societies because of cultural changes creating communicative needs that cannot be readily met by the spoken language. In the modern world, written language serves a range of functions in everyday life, including the following: (a) primarily for action, (b) primarily for information; newspapers news, editorials and current affairs magazines, (c) primarily for entertainments; light magazines, comic strips, fiction books, poetry and drama, newspaper features, film subtitles, gamers, and including computer games. (Halliday, 1985b:40-1).
C. Teaching Games to Increase Vocabulary Mastery
Game is an activity in which participants follow prescribed rules that are different from those of reality as they strive to attain a challenging goal. Games can provide attractive and instructionally effective frameworks for learning activities many games combine well with drill and practice method of learning. Khan (1991) states that games are activities done based on the certain rule.
Game-based teaching has had numerous advocates. John Dewey claimed (1982:4th ed.) games were integral to schooling since they provided active and positive learning experiences. Through games, children learn to imitate and assume diverse social roles, certainly too Jean Piaget stressed (1996) the importance of game playing in cognitive development, games involve students in imaginative and challenging situations that increase factual knowledge, decision making, and interpersonal skills, when learning through games most students eagerly and enthusiastically pursue their studies.
For vocational high school students, learning English as foreign language is not easy. English teacher should provide pleasant atmosphere to invite the motivation and interest of the students. It is done to take students’ ease in acquiring the language of students, not only get the prospect of what they have learnt but also they should get satisfactory from the learning.
Someday, somewhere, children will come up to you, look at you straight in the eyes and ask with a giggle of vocabulary. For many children, word and word meanings are not sources of jokes and riddles. For these children, jokes and mysterious combinations of ink marks that make little sense and create little pleasure. The printed page of a science book can serve, if we are not alert skills development, as a source of frustration for a child with limited vocabulary skills. Here are some specific strategies that you can use to help children to learn new vocabulary words during science time, such as:
1. Look through science trace books or elementary science textbooks before the children work with them to identify terms that may be too context and the pre teach those words.
2. Pronounce science vocabulary words with children before they reach them in their science materials.
3. Have each children develop a personal word card file that lists and defines each new science word, the sentence in which the word we found, phonetic respelling of the word, and if appropriate, a drawing or diagram showing the object or concept that the word define.
D. Games for Teaching Vocabulary
In teaching vocabulary, we need some media or games because game is more interesting and ease the students to recall or memorize English vocabulary.
According to Suyanto (2007:118) games of communicative language has six characteristics as follows:
a. Player has to interact
b. Player has to comprehend existing order in game
c. That game has clear target
d. Game is clear activity
e. Player has to involve actively
f. Player gets special order in game
According to Carrier (1948), the variety of games can be in the form of: words from words, word chains, word pyramids, and password. Furthermore, the reseacher has some games that can be used in teaching vocabulary such as: guessing/miming game and password game.
Following is the explaination of each game:
1. Miming game
The steps of this game are:
a. The teacher will divide the students into two groups
b. The teacher will demonstrate the way how to play the game, and also the rules in playing the game.
c. The teacher will invite one of the students of the first group to come forward and then the teacher will show a word (noun or verb).
d. Then the student will mime to express the word that has shown.
e. Another students in the same group will try to answer or guess the word.
f. The teacher will give 3 times for the students to guess, if the group can’t answer or guess, the group will not get the score.
g. The next turn will be given to the second group and they will do the same as the first group did.
h. The winner is the group that can answer or guess the words correctly as many as possible.
i. The student who will come forward must be a different student in each chance.
j. The looser group will be punished (ex; sing an english song, must be related to english material).
The steps of this game are:
a. The teacher will divide the students into two groups
b. The teacher will give the instruction to the students way how to play the game, and also the rules in playing the game.
c. The teacher will invite one of the students of the first group to come forward (the students who will come forward will be choosen by their friends not the teacher) and then the teacher will show a picture or word (noun).
d. After seeing the picture or the word, he/she will try to mention some words/clues that related to the picture or word, the maximum clues will be 5 clues.
e. Another students in the same group will try to answer or guess the word.
f. The next turn will be given to the second group and they will do the same as the first group did.
g. The winner is the group that can answer or guess the words correctly as many as possible.
h. The student who will come forward must be a different student in each chance.
i. The looser group will be punished (ex; sing an english song, must be related to english material).
The word relates to Refrigerator
You can use these words to suggest it:
- Weight much
In teaching learning process, presenting games in teaching vocabulary is the best way to make students study more interesting. In functioning of the games in teaching learning process in classroom, the teacher has to consider what topic, which relates to this game. Example: while teaching about the objects in classroom, teacher is able to make students interest by presenting directly the object that relates to the topic. Many words can be understood through looking at the things in the context.
A. Method Of Research
The method used in this study is descriptive quantitative research. The researcher will divide into two groups, they will be experimental and control group. Group A will be the experimental group and will be taught by using games and group B will be the control group and will be taught without using games.
B. Population and Sample
The population of this research is the first grade students of SMKN 1 Mataram in the second semester. They are 213 students. In this experimental research, the researcher will choose the sample from the population, and two classes will be taken as the sample of the study. They consist of 72 students; the number of each groups 37 students in class XA and 35 students in class XB. All of the students will become the object of this study, because the member of the population is less than 100 people. (Arikunto, 2006:134).
The research will only be focused for the first grade students in the second semester of SMKN 1 Mataram in academic year 2011/2012. The students only in office administration program, the program consists of 2 classes, office administration 1 and office administration 2.
C. Method of Data Collection
Data collection is one of the important parts in this study because it will be used to know the level of students’ ability. The data in this study will be taken from the result of students’ test in English vocabulary.
The first step is the researcher will divide students into two classes. Class XA will be the experimental group and class XB will be the control group, and then the reseacher will give pre-test to both groups to obtain their score at the first meeting. The test that will be given to the students is objective test (multiple choices). This test will help in deteminining the students’ vocabulary mastery, the test will be consist of 20 items. The second step is the researcher will give a treatment to the experimental group, the English vocabulary will be taught for them through games. The researcher will give three materials; identifying object, identifying people by occupation and present continuous tense and control group will be taught without games, the researcher will spend 2 weeks. The last step is the researcher will give post test after giving them a treatment to the students and to know the differences of achievement the pre-test score and post-test score will be compared.The students’ paper sheets will be collected and the students’ working sheets will be marked and the results in the form of scores will become the data of the research. Each item will be scored 5 for correct answer and 0 for uncorret answer, so the range of score is from 0 to 100.
D. Data Analysis
In order to answer the question proposed earlier, the writer then analyzing the data to know the effectiveness of using game to increase students’ vocabulary mastery, the writer find out the mean score of the sample. To calculate the mean score, the writer uses a formula as follows:
Mx = ∑ −
My = ∑ −
M : Mean
X : Experimental group
Y : Control group
∑ : Sum of
N : Number of sample
(In Arikunto, 2006: 312)
Calculate mean of two groups:
Mx = ∑ − Mean of Experimental Group
My = ∑ − Mean of Control Group
After finding score of two groups, the reseacher also calculate the deviation standard of two scores using formula as follow:
∑X2 = ∑X2 – (∑X)2
N Square Deviation of Experimental Group
∑Y2 = ∑Y2 – (∑Y)2
N Square Deviation of Control Group
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Class : 1st grade
Semester : 1st semester
Read the following questions below carefully and choose the correct answer by crossing (x) a, b, c or d.
1. Something that we use to put some rice on it, is called.................
a. Spoon c. Plate
b. Table d. Fork
2. Mother puts some dry clothes in it. It is a...............................
a. Wardrobe c. Refrigerator
b. Cupboard d. Washing mechines
3. If you want to wash your dirty clothes automatically, you can use..................
a. Freezer c. Cupboard
b. Washing machine d. Wardrobe
4. If you want to make some ice cubes, you can put it in................
a. Wardrobe c. Freezer
b. Bucket d. Cupboard
5. If you want to go to school, don’t forget to put on your..............
a. Shoes c. Jacket
b. Slipper d. T-shirt
6. A...............is used to put your book before going to school.
a. Luggage c. Bag
b. Plastic bag d. Suitcase
7. Something that we used to write some school notes....................
a. Paper c. Book
b. Pencil d. A computer
8. We usually sleep on a..........................
a. Bad c. Bat
b. Bed d. Bath
9. Father always wears a tidy...............to the office.
a. T-shirt c. Jacket
b. Shirt d. Pijamas
10. I always go to school by………………..it has 2 wheels
a. Car c. Motorcycle
b. Bus d. Train
11. Someone who teaches students in the class………
a. Dean c. Teacher
b. Doctor d. Nurse
12. He works in the sea for sailing. He is a…………………
a. Pilot c. Fisherman
b. Sailor d. Tailor
13. Anjasmara is an………..he plays many kinds of movie.
a. Artistic c. Actor
b. Painter d. Director
14. Someone who takes you care, when you got sick………..
a. Nurse c. Doctor
b. Parents d. Chef
15. Someone who loves cooking………………
a. Cook c. House wife
b. Lawyer d. Cooker
16. Andi……………the coconut tree now.
a. Climbs c. Climbed
b. Is climbing d. Have climbed
17. My sister and my father are…………..some books in the living room now.
a. Read c. Reads
b. Reading d. Readed
18. The secretary……….some letters now.
a. Type c. Is typed
c. Typing d. Is typing
19. Sinta is………….a bath now
a. Takes c. Is take
b. Taking d. Took
20. The students……………English in the classroom now.
a. Is studying c. Are studying
b. Studied d. Study