AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENT’S WRITING ABILITY COMPOSING
IN NARRATIVE TEXT AT THE FIRST GRADE STUDENT’S
OF MTS NURUL QUR’AN PAGUTAN MATARAM
1.1 Background of Study
As we know that English is international language and as a foreign language in our country, English also is the second language from Indonesian, in junior high school learn English to university level, even most of peoples in Indonesian are learn about English and in this case we want to know of students ability in writing narrative text because not all people can not write effectively expecially write narration story or narrative text and most of literature are written in English. We analysis the students how they compousing the narration story (Narrative text) by using their mine or imagination it self, and than the leader to what extent the students ability and weakness in English, this is an important for leader to know their ability.
The purpose of the Narrative Text is to entertain or to amuse the readers or listeners. There are some division of narrative text such as Legend, Fable, Fairy Tale and other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audience think about an issue, teach a lesson, or excite their emotions. In well-writen narration, a writer use insight, drama, suspance, humor, or fantasy to create a central theme or impression. The details all work together to develop an identifiable story line that is easy to follow and pharase act.
Writing is not simply putting meaning down some words into a number of unrelate sentences but it is the ability to produce a sequence of sentence arranged in a particular order and linked together in a certain way in order in produce some ideas, thoughts and desires (Byrne, 1990: 1). Writing is complex cognitive activity which require. The writer control several variables like punctuation, grammatical system, vocabulary and letter formation.
Learning to write is a development process, it means that the students will study it continously, at the their writing ability is still low especially in writting narrative text. Many students can not writing narrative English text cause they are only using their imagination without paid attention about the rule of narrative itself, like orientation, events, complication and resolution.
In fact, Students writing ability still low, although they have been learn English before narrative text can’t write good narration text well. They still confused with writing conventions or agreements. And It’s vocaulary difficult for them to explore and share their ideas.
Another problems are the psychological, linguistics and cognitive problems, become the dominant factors which is make the students find out difficulties to write English narrative text well.Students must know writing convention completely to develop Narrative text. It is made the students confused to differentiate verb how share ideas and develop it, students get difficulties to compose narrative text, especially to the research, that is:
Writing is one of the important skill in English because writing is an extramely complex cognitive activity which requires the writer to demonstrate control of several variables at once. Therefore, many studies about it. In this case a research has done by Rusiadi, (2009), The Analysis of the Use of Preposition and Conjunction in Writing Descriptive Essays a Case Study at the Sixth Semester Students of MTs Nurul Qur’an Pagutan Mataram 2011/2012 , the writer infers that The students’ ability in writing paragraph of descriptive is good, this the fact more than 60% of the students are able to use the preposition and conjunction in writing paragraph of descriptive, and the students are able to describe their opinion in using their own words in to a paragraph desciptive.
The other studies show that research writing skill is a research has done by Muzakir, (2009), The Effectiveness of Picture Series to Increase the Students Writing in Narrative Stories a Case Study on the Language and Social Departement of MTs Nurul Qur’an Pagutan 2011/2012, the writer conclusing that the using pictures series is effective, ekspecially in teaching writing to gain the maximum achievement on any writing material taugh.
From the previous studies have been mantioned, only a few studies include the students’ ability in writing narrative. Therefore, this research with a tittle students’ writing ability in narrative text at the second year students of Mts Nurul Qur,an pagutan Mataram in academic year 2011/2012 is a research important have to do.
Based on that phenomena, the writer want to analyze students ability in compose narrative text.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of study above, this study is intended to answer the following research question:
1. How the students ability to compose narrative text?
2. What level of ability do the students have in writing narrative text?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1. To analyze the students writing ability especially write narrative text.
2. To find out students classification or level to compose narrative text students performance students ability.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The end of this study the researcher hope that the result of the study can increase of improve the students’ achievement in mastery of English grammar to make good sentence in English writing by using narrative text the result of the study can increase or improve the English teacher achievement of writing and guidance their students to master the use of English grammar in teaching learning process.
To the institution, this research may overcome such problems as the solution may be need by English teacher in Mts. Nurul Qur’an.
The result of this study is expected to give constructive contribution for students, teacher or institution to improve teaching and learning process, especially in teaching English writing.
The result of this study will be of much help:
a. To give consideration to teachers and researchers, the readers and the researcher about the way to improve the quality of teaching and learning environment.
b. To inform the English teachers of Muhammadiyah University of Mataram to adapt and adopt the method and technique of English teaching.
c. To inform the students that they have to motivate and activate themselves in studying English better, especially in writing.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of study writing narrative text at the Second Year students’of Mts Nurul Qur’an Pagutan Mataram.
1.6 Definition of the Key Terms
Before the researcher continuous this discussion concerning the topic, it is necessary to present the definition of the terms need in relation with the title to give clear ideas of what the proposal is about.
a. Writing English
Writing is an act of communication, making marks on certain surface in a form of graphic presentation, create writing.
Writing is complex cognitive ability which require the writer demonstrate control of several variable like grammatical, system, punctuation, letter formation, and vocabulary.
Ability is defined as potential capacity or power to do something physical or mental (Hornby, 1986: 2).
c. Narrative text
A narrtive is a text type which tells a story in which people encounter a problem or crisis that they need to overcome – it shows how people or groups of people overcome a problem or crisis in their lives (Joyce and feez, 2004:23 cited in Emi Emilia, 2010:167).
A narrative text focused on imagination and the writer language proficiency.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES
2.1 Writing as Language Skills
In teaching-learning process, the students need much reading to have wide enough knowledge in order to have mastery in conversation or in writing skills. To the same extent, views that reading should be stimulated when the students need to create the sense condition. In order words, the students are given several questions in order to be interested in topic or reading material. It may be the students’ sense condition, which is stimulated by teachers’ questions, to read aloud. Reading and writing are only mastered by educated people or learners to write or record, to convince report or inform and to influence. It means direction is not only gained by people or learners but also how to construct their though and expressing clearly, and it depends on their though, words organization or word use and sentence structure.
In addition such student’s only need to read English to be able to understand technical or scientific writing: so we will instruct them in how to scope in one kind of material. To this attitude, we say, the reading skill is developed to maturity by reading what interests one and in reading as much as possible.
However, good reading skills are developed by reading. For this reasons, we refer to design for intermediate and advanced which move students though various types of materials, from popular writing to professional writing, all of which have quite different genes in English.
Considering with four language skills as the writer stated before, the writer is interested to come up a more elaborate description about reading and writing of language skills.
Besides as language skills, reading and writing are also a means of communication. The written language or written communication is done through one way intercourse. It means that the writer as a communicator directly transmitted the message (s) to the interlocutor/receiver or reader by putting down the graphic symbols into a plat surface and then, read by receiver. As a result, by reading the writer’s writing, the reader has created a communication to the writer (Tarigan, 1986: 21). Then to add those some purposes, people write to tell some useful current information to other people who do not know the information.
Finally, for two participants, a writer and reader, effective writers are always aware of these dualism and direct writing to particular readers. Through reading and writing we can improve our skill and enlarge our human development achievement. Of course, reading will be nothing without writing. Writing ability is to and product of language learning.
2.1.1 The Writing Process
1) Five steps in Writing process
1. Drafting is make an outline, main idea.
2. Composing is develop an outline efficiency and effectively.
3. Editing is find out student mistaken in the composition.
4. Revising is substitute / change by using correct form.
5. Publishing is publish to the reader.
6. During the process, students engage in pre-writing, planning, drafting, and post writing activities they will be discussed briefly in this subtopic.
Pre-writing is the first stage in writing process, begins long before the writer puts thoughts into writing the experiences, observations, and interactions that students have an impact upon when they will write and how they will write it.
After students have generated some ideas, they must decide what they will say about their chose topic. Students develop an initial plan for the product they will compose. As they do so, they must consider the purpose, audience, point of view and format because these elements have implications for both the planning and the drafting of the written product.
At this point in the process, the emphasize is on content and meaning rather than on mechanics and conventions this is the time for written to get down their ideas and thoughts, composing rough drafts based upon pre-writing and planning activities and considerations.
d. Post Writing
When students have an authentic audience and purpose, they want to rework their written drafts, polishing them for presentation or publications. Teachers may encourage students to share certain pieces or determine the number of pieces that the students a required to share or publish within a set time period, but ultimately the decision about which pieces to share, and with whom should be left up to the writer (Muzakir, 2009: 12).
2.1.2 Guided Writing Process
Some of those decisions are complex because we are trying to shape ideas or define concepts; other is simple because we are arranging words and phrases. But each decisions large or small, affect every other decision so what we are continuously adjusting our decision to make sure that writing is becoming increasingly consistent, coherent and clear. The best ways to test the effectiveness of decision are to measure them against the three elements in every writing a writer is always trying to communicate a subject to an audience for a purpose (Mc Crimon et, al. 1984: 13- 14).
Initially, we should think of those elements as way to consider what we want to write about it. Meanwhile, we should think of those elements as guidelines, as way to direct and control every decision we make during the writing process from formulating ideas to forming sentences.
a. Selecting Subject
When a writer has free choice of subject, his difficulties may appear more complicated. No one is helping him to find subject. On the other hand, no one is telling him what to do or how to do it (Mc Crimon, et, al, 1984:14). To some extent, Gorys Keraf (1980:109) wrote that to determine a topic of a good writing is a hard work and they way to choose this big problem of writing is a skill of a writer. A good writer may manipulate the sources surrounding him as the topic of his writing. Then the most important one is which of those phenomena that interest to him and how develop this topic to be a readable writing work.
Again, (Mc Crimon, et. al, 1984:15-16) states to find appropriate subject, first the writer should write about a subject he knows or can learn something about. The more he knows his subject, the more likely he is to shape it according to his unique perspective. In particular, if is subject is familiar to most of readers than his personal experiences with or research on the subject will help him write about it in term of observation, ideas and his values. Second, he must determine if his subject in general subject that he must limit to specific subject.
A specific subject focuses on particular topic within that category, or a specific subject can reflect a particular attitude or judgment that express the writer’s personal view of general subject, he needs to ask himself three questions about it. Is it significance? Is it interesting? And is it manageable?
Interestingly, in topic phenomena, (Goldman and Hitch, 1982:2) pointed out that the importance of carefully choosing topic is to shape the writing may appear as obvious as the importance of writing purpose and other elements.
b. Analyzing the Audience
In other to make effective analysis, however, writers must remember that they are writing for three audiences, which suggested by (Mc Crimon, et. al. 1987:18-19). First, the most immediate (and it some ways the most important) audience for writers’ writing is himself. He writes not only to convey his ideas to other readers but also to clarify and confirm them for himself. Second, writer is as a reader or first reader. To think of himself as an audience, he must change place; he must stop thinking like a writer and begin thinking like a reader. He also s fairly representative reader, that is, he does share broad concerns and interest with other people. If he feels that is writing is clear and lovely and has something to say, other readers will probably feel that way too, even though there is a draw- back to concerning himself as an audience. These readers usually are his friend and teacher even editors. They have helped him select subject, guided him through the various stages of the writing process. Third, is the primary audience for the writers’ writing is group of readers are eager to read writing that tells them something interesting or important.
Finally, the writer has to decide which group would make the best audience for his writing. That decision about subject, has to be made in the context of the complete writing situation. Both decisions are, in turn, closely related to discovery of his purpose-what he wants to do in his writing or easy.
c. Determine the Purpose
When purpose is considered as an element inside the writing the term has a specifics meaning; purpose is the overall design that governs what writers do in their writing. When writers have determined his this purpose, they know what kind of information they need, how they want to organize and develop that information, and why they think it is important (Mc Crimon, et. al. 1984:23). In effect, purpose directs and controls the entire decisions writer make through out the writing process. It is both the “what” of that process and the “how” that is, the specific subject the writers communicates and the writer use to communicate the subject most effectively. That writing is both a procedure for demonstrating what he knows and a procedure for discovering what he knows. For that reasons, the writer must maintain a kind of double vision of his purpose. First, he must think of it as a preliminary objective that helps illuminate the decisions he has to make; he must actually discover his purpose, and from that point he uses it to guide all aspects of his writing.
In addition, the writing process, although it centers on the constant of subject, audience, and purpose, is a fluid process. The writer needs to strike the right balance between finding his purpose and then demonstrating that purpose. The strategies of the writer should learn in order to strike that balance are the subjects of the writing process in to the process itself.
2.2 Narrative Text
(Mc Crimmon, 1984: 160 cited in Rusiadi, 2009: 16) suggest that to write a narrative you need to choice a point of view to establish the person and the position of the narrator. If you tell “I or we”, you are writing from the first person point of view; if you recount intent “he, she or they”, you are writing in third person point of view.
In other hand, narration usually refers to the story and the term is used here to describe an experience that may be in the past (past narration), it may be typical experience (what people usually do), or happens now (present narration). Kridalaksana in Tarigan(1987: 56) said that: narrative discourse is the discourse that first person or third person in a special oriented to characters and all of them are based on the chronological order.
A narrtive is a text type which tells a story in which people encounter a problem or crisis that they need to overcome – it shows how people or groups of people overcome a problem or crisis in their lives (Joyce and feez, 2004:23 cited in Emi Emilia, 2010:167). Narratives are used to teach lessons, to entertain, and to explore social values (Joyce and Feez, 2004: 23; Christie and Derewianka, 2008 in Emi Emilia) Or moral value (Gibbons,2009: 109 cited in Emi Emilia, 2010).
Narratives in English speaking in cultures commanly have a particular structure, as can be seen in Table 2.1, based on the work of Joyce and Feez (2004); Christie and Derewianka, (2008); Gibbons (2009 cited in Emi Emilia, 2010).
A narrative may have an abstract, though it is optional (Christie and Derewianka, 2008; 32). However, as Joyce and Feez (2008: 24 in ibid) argue, all Narratives must have an orientation and complication with an evaluation and a resolution. Story tellers, argue Joyce and Feez, only sometimes give their narratives a coda and at other times they leave the reader to work ut the coda for themselves. Other writers, like Gibbons (2009) also offers a different names of elements of the structure of a Narrative.
Like others genres that have been taken up previously in this book, Narratives also have linguistic features, and to follow Joyce and Feez (2004) and gibbons (2009: 111), these linguistic features can be listed below:
a) It is sequenced in time, and this is signaled by a range of time connectives: once upon a time, after a while, first, then.
b) It uses the past tense: They argued for a long time.
c) It uses many action verbs which express matarial processes that describe what happen: blew, wrapped, shone, exhausted.
d) It contains dialogues and uses a number of “saying verbs” (Verbal processes), such as: said, asked, replied. Sometimes these saying verbs also indicate how something is said. for example, instead of writing “he said” What is that?” one might say: “He whispered “What is that?”.
e) Many Narratives also use thingking verbs that give us informatin about what participants are thinking or feeling, such as wondered, remembered, though, felt, disliked.
f) Narratives use descriptive language to describe people and things: bitterly could day, long, thick,, warm coat, cold North Wind, gentle Sun and to desribe how actions occur: easily, harder, tightly, and warmly.
2.2.1 Social Purpose
The purpose of narratives is to entertain, but like others traditional tales this story is also intended to teach and offers a moral (gentelness may be more powerful than strength).
Traditional Western narratives follow a typical organizational pattern. They begin with an orientation that introduces the characters and sets the scene, often giving details of when and where the story takes place. Then there are a number of events, which lead to a problem or complication that gets up some kind of tension. Finally there is a resolution, where the problem is resolved in some way.
2.3 Approaches and Techniques in Teaching Writing
As the writer begins the writing process, he starts to acquire a general sense of his purpose. He makes tentative decision about the nature of his subject and audience, and he begins to formulate ideas about what he wants to accomplish in his writing.
In teaching-learning process there are any number that teacher approaches. This emphasized teaching the compehention texts. The teacher thought from books containing short reading passages in the foreign language, preceded by lists of vocabulary. When reading and writing are introduced, students are thought to read and write that they have already learned. The teacher must be involved in the eclecticism (Norton, 1983:11). The second language English teacher, commonly using several well known approaches such as the control to free approaches, the free writing approach, the phragraph pattern approach, the grammar syntax organization approach, the communicate approach and test is the process approach (Norton, 1983:12-13).
For foreign language study and classroom techniques, procedure and approach used to each language have reflected response to a variety historical issues and circumstances. Approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching learning (Edward Anthony, 1963:63).
In conclusion, the techniques and approaches are much considering applied in writing classrooms. The techniques will be described in short narrative into small sub-topic bellows.
a. Technique in Reading Text
Reading what other people have written about your subject is probably the most ccommon strategy for gathering information for your writing. For experienced writers, reading is always an active (never passive) procedure. They select analyze and evaluate what they are read one purpose; to help them write (Mc Crimon, et. al. 1984:70). He also suggested that several kinds of reading and writing activities that you engage in when you plan and write a formal research paper checking bibliographies, assessing sources, taking notes, writing summaries, quoting evidence, and documenting sources.
To the same extent, Norton (1983) states that, a short story, a newspaper column, an advertisement, a latter, a magazine article, a poem, a brochures a pamphlet or even a piece of students writing can work at the same ways as a picture; it can be used to create an information gap that leads the communication conveying news and real information.
Reading text as technique in teaching writing give us the ability to record and communicate our experiences and knowledge. The writing of predecessors becomes an available source of information and ideas that stimulated further thought and progress (Weisman, 1980:3-4).
In addition, effective writing employs telling details to communicate specific information and gain the readers’ interest, and we can enhance and enrich any sentences and resources by reading any part or a piece of paper, newspaper, journal, article and other print materials.
Consequently, to read several overviews of our subjects so that we can learn something about its history, major ideas, and principal figures (Mc Crimon et, al. 1984:455).
b. Technique in Using Pictures
The aim of technical writing is communication between at least two participants a writer and reader-effective writer are always aware of this dualism and direct their writing to a particular reader audience. Ways of bringing understanding to the reader vary with the particular situation and interest (weisman, 1980:43).
In technical writing, picture, graphic aids are often the key to a better understanding an reunable of the text material. Identify the characteristic of effective technical illustration (Weisman, 1980:11). For the factorial material media such as picture (Either single or picture series) drawings, photograph, posters, graphs, tables, chart, and most are providing a shard experience for that students in the class.
Photograph offer not only realistic and accurate representations but also dramatic and artistic effects. The effect of photograph illustration, require thoughtful planning so that all desired details are shown at the most favorable angle. To give a reader an idea of equipment’s size or to lend human interest to a picture, include in the photographs, as is suitable, human being or learners who might be logically associated with the equipmentsts (Weismen, 1980:189).
Accordingly, the application of using pictorial materials in writing classroom, the students are working in pair or small group and each students for up a different picture to work with this frees the teach her choose any interesting topic, which the students familiar with. Then, they are asked to write what they know about the picture (Byrne, 1979:67). For the teacher may find as many as their teaching styls as the techniques in using this media in the teaching learning process.
c. Technique in Using Memory
Your own past is one of your best sources of information. Since infancy you have been accumulating memories about people, places, and things; about growing up, falling down, leaving home, staying put-the list is endless. These memories will often pop into your head when you lest except them. A face in the crowd reminds you of your first date. When you begin to write, however, you can not remember on impulse. You must remember on purpose. Searching your past for impressions, events, and ideas you may want to use (Mc Crimon, et al, 1984:37).
Next, he also suggested that one of the best wants to remember is to a code word to unlock your memory. Code words are similar to general subjects in the they identify a broad area in which you can search for information to shape into a more experiences. And as you will make associations and connection with other experiences we had forgotten. An easy way to find one is simply to make a list of words. One word will suggest another until you have complated a fairly interesting group. Thinking as quality and as broadly as possible, you try to remember everything that is provoked by your code word. More important, write down everything that comes into your mind in whatever from seems most eficient. You can make another list of words. Compose notes and diagrams or even out full sentences if they are interesting.
At last, although our memory is a rich source of information, we may discover that we have forgotten or never knew some of the information we need in order to write.
2.3.1 Problem in Teaching Writing
We can begin to see way is writing commonly a difficult activity for most people, both in the mother language and in the foreign language.
We shall look the problems in teaching writing as follows:
a. Psychological Problems
Speech is the natural and normal medium of communication for us in most circumstance and accustoms us both to having someone physically present we use language and to getting feedback of some kind. Writing on the other hand is essentially a solitary activity and the fact that we are required to write on our own, without the posibility of interaction or the benefit of feedback, in itself makes the act of writing difficult.
b. Linguistic Problems
Oral communication is sustained through a process of interaction, and in special circumstances such as a lecture, all the participants help to keep it going because speech is normally spontaneous, we have little time to pay attention either to organizing our sentences structure or to connecting our sentences. To some extent the letter is maintaining through the process of the interaction. We repeat backtract expend and so on, defending on how the people react to what we say, while in complete and even ungrammatical utterances are tolerated.
c. Cognitive Problems
We grow up learning to speak informal circumstance spend of much our time. We also appear to speak without much conscious effort of through and genera we talk because we want to, about matter which are of interest or relevant to us socially or professionally writing, on the other hand, is learn through a process of instruction: we have to master the language and to learn certain structures which are less used in speech, or perhaps not use at all, but which are important for effective communication in writing also to learn how to organize our ideas in such a way that they can be understood by a reader who is not known to us.
Finally, writing is a task which is often imposed on us, perhaps by circumstances. This not only has a physiological effect: it may also cause a problem in terms of content - what we say. Being at a loss for ideas is familiar experience to most of us when we are obliged to write.
2.4 The Kinds of Narrative
Narrative is an account of a sequence of events, usually in chronological order. Relating to kinds of text, which student has to complete studying in high school, narrative is a text which retells the story or previous experiences. The purpose of the text is to entertain or amuse readers or listeners about the story. Narrative is basically story and within this, story telling, there are many kinds of narrative - comedy, mystery, romance, horror are some of the commoner types. A poem can also be a narrative if it tells a story rather than just describing something.
According to L. Spencer, in A Step-by-Step Guide to Narrative Writing. Rosen, 2005, In writing a narrative, an author has a chance to make his or her mark on the world by relating a story that only he or she can tell. Whether it comes from a personal experience or is one that the writer has imagined, the point of a narrative is to bring one's subject to life. By using sensory details, the five Ws and H (who, what, where, when, why, and how), and basic story structure, any subject can be made exciting. Common forms of narrative text which are studied in high school are:
A legend is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history. Typically, a legend is a short, traditional and historicized narrative performed in a conversational mode. Some define legend as folktale. The example of legend in narrative text are: Sangkuriang, Malin Kundang, The legend of Tangkuban Perahu, The story of Toba lake.
A fable is a short allegorical narrative making a moral point, traditionally by means of animal characters who speak and act like human beings. The example of fable in narrative text are: mouse deer and crocodile, the ants and the grasshopper, the smartest parrot, the story of monkey and crocodile.
c. Fairy Tale
According to Wikipedia, fairy tale is an English language term for a type of short narrative corresponding to the French phrase "conte de fée". A fairy tale typically features such folkloric characters as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. The example of fairy tale in narrative text are: Cinderella, Snow white, Pinocchio, Beauty and the beast, The story of Rapunzel.
d. Science Fiction
According to Basil Davenport. 1955, Science fiction is fiction based upon some imagined development of science, or upon the extrapolation of a tendency in society. Science fiction is that class of prose narrative treating of a situation that could not arise in the world we know. Some examples of science fiction are: To the Moon from the Earth by Jules Verne, Starship Trooper by Robert Heinlein, A Space Odyssey by Arthur C. Clarke.
2.5 The Types of Narrative
There are a variety of types of narrative and a considerable amount of sub-genres within each type of narrative. However, in general terms, the different types of narrative include written, spoken, song and even imagery.
a. Written Narratives.
There is a huge amount of written narratives available. The most popular and widely-recognized form of written narrative are books. They can be stories, poems, fables or even non-fictional books. A narrative by definition is a construct that has been placed into a suitable format, so any sort of story that is written down could be classed as a narrative.
b. Spoken Narratives.
In most cases, these spoken narratives will take the form of a script for a theater production or a poem that is read aloud. However, spoken narratives could also include a person simply telling their recollection of an event that happened to them, as this still constitutes telling a story. Written narratives can easily become spoken as soon as they are read out aloud.
c. Musical Narratives.
There is most likely a fine line between musical narratives and the other two aforementioned narrative types. This is because musical narratives can either be songs that are written or sung, as well as other formats such as opera or ballet.
d. Narratives Through Images.
This format is relatively self-explanatory as a story is told through the use of pictures or other imagery (perhaps including dance). However, in most cases, this will also feature some form of spoken or written narrative to help tell the story of what the imagery involves. The telling of these stories is known as narration and this can be in three types; first person, second person and third person. First person narrative is when the story is told from the storyteller's perspective e.g. 'I went to the beach'. Second person narrative is when the story is told through second-personal pronouns e.g. 'You went to the beach'. Third person narrative is when the narrative voice refers to characters as 'he' or 'she' but never with 'you' or 'I', unless through dialog or quotations.
3.1 Method of the Study
Method is the way to conduct research by collecting data that would be analyzed further. A research method is a way employed by the writer to collect and analyze the data in a research. Method itself is a way which is used to research a certain purpose, such as to examine hypothesis by using certain technique and instrument. It also can be said that method of research is the general strategy which is used to collect and analyze the data needed to solve problem.
The method of this research is quantitative. The writer is aimed to find out or investigate the students’ writing ability in narrative text. The writer wants to state the elaboration of the first test to find out the case of students’ competence from the variable of the title. For the research design, descriptive approach will be used in which some valid test procedure will be conducted. This test is intended to measure how far the students’ competence in writing. Or collect the data the writer will apply test and data would be analyzed through basic statistical computation.
3.2 Population and Sample
Arikunto (1997: 108) states that a population is a set (or collection) of all elements possessing one or more attributes of interest. Population of this study are the students of Muhammadiyah University of Mataram in academic year 2011/2012, which consist of five classes, they are A, B, C, D and E class of fourth semester of English Language Department, which each class consist of 40 students. All of the population are 200 students. The writer takes 30 students of them as the research sample (class E) by using random sampling (namely a method of sample taking by mixly without paying attention to the grade of number of population. This way is conducted if the number of population is supposed homogenous (Hidayat, 2007:
3.3 Method of Data Collection
In this study, in order to find out how far the EFL students’ writing ability in narrative text. The result of the test is marked according to writing English test or modified from Heaton (1975: 170). According Heaton, the points that should be graded are: Grammar, Vocabulary, Mechanics, Fluency and Relevancy.
The research used of investigation for to collecting data by follow:
1. Participatory observation
The writer or researcher participate actively in writting clasroom.
The research used of interview to the students to find out their achievement in writing narrative text.
The research used of questionnaire for to collecting data, the writer give essay to students for to know to what extent achievement student in writing narrative text.
1. To what ex extent the students ability in writting narrative text.
2. How to achievement the students in writting narrative tex.
In this study the reseacher used of questionare in narrative text item, than reseacher colculation the result of the students ability in writting narrtive text.
To score the students’ ability in writing scripts the writer has subjective scoring, which is done analytically based on the following consideration (Carrol, et. al, 1985).
5 = if the writing script uses complete and perfect grammar
4 = if contains random mistakes in using verb be form noun,
Adverb and Adjective
3 = if it contains mistakes in using verbs
2 = if it is reflects Indonesian structure but still under stable
1. = if it meaningless.
The score the vocabulary is base on the member of word used the score will be:
5 = if more than 50 different words
4 = if 40-49 different words
3 = if 20-39 different words
2 = if 20 different words
1 = if the less than 20 different words.
The score on the mechanic is based on spelling and punctuation, the score will be:
5 = if the spelling and the punctuation are perfect
4 = if it contains random mistakes in using punctuation mark
3 = if it contains random mistakes in spelling of word
2 = if contains random mistakes in punctuation and spelling
1 = if writing unwritten and meaningless.
d. Fluency and Relevancy
The scoring on fluency and relevancy is base on the unity and cohesion the score will be:
5 = if the writing is fluency and relevance enough to the topics
4 = if there is a right shift of the topic between sentence and does not disturb cohesion
3 = if there is a lack of cohesion
2 = if there are random mistakes in sentence order
1 = if the writing script is poor of unity.
To get the result of the validity of research from the EFL students’ of Muhammadiyah University of Mataram. It is the component of the criteria of scoring guidelines of analysis writing skill. As a component follows:
Is one of the importants in writing? It governs utterances, which we produce to be right and orderly. Therefore, it also has great influence on his quality of writing piece.
Is the one of the language aspects dealing with the process of writing Pincas (1982: 45) comments out in order process to convey through a feeling, it is possible we do several things? We arrange our ideas in sentence, we organize sentence, in to paragraph and with these, we construct whole essay, story, and etc.
Mechanics of writing deals capitalization, spelling, and functional. Capital letters have two principle uses in English writing. They may be used to distinguish between particular and general classes of person, person and things. There are some special situations that call for use of capital letter. First word in quotation, a formal statement and etc.
d. Fluency and Relevancy
After grading the data, the researcher with properly speed, not too slow or not too difficult (Heaton, 1975). To score the students writing scripts, write uses subjective scoring, which is done analytically based on the following consideration. (Carrol: 1985).
3.4. Data Analysis Procedures
After grading the data, the researcher continues to analyze the data. In data analysis, the writer uses quantitative. It means that after identifiying each of the students’ writing, the researcher uses statistic to analyze the data and describes the samples that have exellent, very good, good, fairly good and terrible.
The result of this study leads the research to take the conclution and give some suggestions to the English teacher generally and English students of Muhammadiyah University of Mataram.
To analyze the data, the writer uses the following procedures
Table 1. Scoring Guidelines for Analytical Scheme of Writing Skill
Fluency and relevancy
1. Regarding the scores and for the shake of data analysis, four elements for writing skills are scored, namely: Grammar, Vocabulary, mechanics, fluency and relevance. Moreover, to identify the individual sample writing raw scores, the writer use the following formula:
= Fluency and relevance
X = The writing score of individual sample.
2. Compare the result of the mean score of the students’ writing ability in narrative with the guidelines as issued by Healton, (1989: 137).
The score will be got from the test that the students have done. By adding the grammar, vocabulary, mechanic, fluency and relevancy in student test.
3. Calculating the student’s score percentages:
To abstains the information concerned to the competency of the studies, the writer determines a formula of a persentage scale and qualification according to the table 2 above as follow
P = Proportion
∑S = Number of students get score > 60
∑F = Number of students get score < 60
N = Number of sample.
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