PAPER ARTS AND CULTURE "BATIK"
Batik is one of the typical Indonesian cultural heritage that has become the world civilization. Types of traditional batik patterns quite so much, but the patterns and variations in accordance with the philosophy and culture of each region are very diverse. Typical Indonesian culture so rich nation has been driving styles and types of traditional batik with its own characteristic peculiarities.
This paper aims to increase knowledge about the culture of batik, especially about the motives, patterns, techniques, and ways of making tools and materials for making traditional Indonesian batik Indonesian batik remain stable in the community.
2.1. Motifs and patterns BATIK INDONESIA
Batik variety of shades and colors are influenced by various foreign influences. Initially, batik has a variety of shades and colors are limited, and some patterns may only be in use by certain circles. However, coastal batik absorb various external influences, such as foreign traders and also the invaders. Bright colors like red popularized by the Chinese, who also popularized the style phoenix. Retaining traditional batik s type, and is still used in traditional ceremonies, because usually each style has a representation of each.
As for the types of Batik Based Pattern / Motive in Indonesia to date are as follows:
1. Batik Pekalongan
Pekalongan batik tidal development, showing Pekalongan worthy to be an icon for the development of batik in the archipelago. This is due to the many industries that produce batik products. Because the product is famous for its batik, known as the City of Pekalongan Batik. The nickname comes from a long tradition rooted in Pekalongan. During that long period, various properties, the variety of uses, type design, as well as batik quality is determined by the climate and the presence of fibers of local, historical factors, trade and community readiness to accept and understand new ideas.
Pekalongan Batik is very free, and interesting, though often modified with a variety of attractive colors. Quite often on a piece of batik cloth found up to 8 colors bold, and dynamic combination. Pekalongan Batik is a privilege, the pembatiknya always up to date. For example, at the time of the Japanese occupation, the batik was born with the name "Java Batik Hokokai" with batik motifs and colors that resemble the Japanese kimono. In the sixties also created batik with the name "Tritura". Even in 2005, shortly after President Yudhoyono appointed appearing batik "SBY" motif that is similar to ikat and songket. Pekalongan residents not breathing out of ideas to make batik creations.
2. Batik Mega Chance
Almost in all regions of Java has a rich culture typical batik. of course there are areas that are more prominent such as Solo, Yogya, and Pekalongan. but the wealth of art batik Cirebon area is no less than the other cities.
Historically, in the bustling port of Cirebon are served by various migrants from within and outside the country. One of the newcomers is quite influential are immigrants from China who brings confidence and art of the country.
In history it is noted that Sunan Gunung Jati who develop Islamic teachings in Cirebon area married a Chinese princess named Ong Tie. His wife is very concerned with the arts, particularly ceramics. The motifs on the tiles brought from the land of China is ultimately affect motives batik mix up occurred between Cirebon-Chinese culture.
One of the most famous motifs of batik Cirebon area is the Mega Clear or Cloud-awanan. This motif can be seen on both form and color style Chinese tastes.
Mega motif symbolizes Chance of rain in the next carrier-carrier natikan as fertility, and giver of life. This motif is dominated by blue color, from light blue to dark blue. Dark blue color illustrates the dark clouds that contain rain water, the giver of life, while the light blue color symbolizes the bright life.
3. Batik motif Truntun
Arguably Truntum motif is a symbol of love that blossomed again. According to the story, this motif was created by a Queen Keraton Yogyakarta.
The Queen who has been loved and pampered by the King, was forgotten by the King who has had a new lover. To pass the time and eliminate grief, the Queen began to make. Queen unconsciously make star-shaped motif in a dark sky, which had been with him in solitude. Queen perseverance interest in batik king who then began to approach the Queen to see pembatikannya. Since it constantly monitors the development of batik king queen, little by little affection towards the Queen King grows back. Thanks to this motif king love blossomed again or tum-tum back, so the motive is named Truntum, as a symbol of love that blossomed again king.
4. Batik Jlamprang
Motif - motifs Jlamprang or in Yogyakarta with Nitik name is one that is quite popular batik produced in Pekalongan Krapyak area. This is the development of Batik motifs of India Potola sometimes geometric shaped or star-shaped eyes and a breeze to use with its top branches quadrangular. Batik is immortalized Jlamprang be one way in Pekalongan.
5. Batik Pegantin
Each traditional batik motifs on the classic always has its own philosophy. At Batik motifs, especially from Central Java region, especially Solo and Yogya, each image has a meaning. It has something to do with the meaning or philosophical significance in Hindu-Javanese culture. At certain motifs exist that are considered sacred and can only be used on a particular occasion or event, such as the marriage ceremony.
Sido Mukti motif-usually worn by the bride and groom at weddings, also named as Sawitan (pair). Sido means continuously or be and mukti means living in affluent and happiness. so we can conclude this motif melambangka hope for the future is good, full of happiness under on the bride and groom. In addition there are also Sido Mukti motif Sido Asih the meaning of life in love. There's more Sido Mulyo motif that means living in kemuliana and Sido Luhur meaning in life is always virtuous.
There is also a motif that is not sawitan twins, but usually wear the bridal couple yaiu motif Queen Ruth paired with Semen Rama, who symbolizes faithfulness of a wife to her husband. Actually there are many more commonly used motifs bridal couple, everything was created by symbolizing hope, messages, intentions and good faith to the bridal couple. At the marriage ceremony the bride usually wears Parents Truntum motif which can also mean lead, the meaning of which led the bride and groom in entering new intricacies of the married life.
Also known motif Sido wirasat, wirasat means counsel, and the motive is always some combination of motives truntum in it, which symbolize the parents will always advise and guide the bride and groom in entering married life.
6. Three Batik State
The complexity of a piece of batik was still not enough if we know the history of the State Ttiga Batik motif. Three Batik motifs typical batik State is a combination Lasem, Pekalongan and Solo, in the colonial era and the autonomous region called the land. Maybe if just blend motifs typical of each region is still reasonable and ordinary, but who makes this batik has high artistic value is the process. It is said that according to the batik, water each area has a major influence on the coloration, and this makes sense because the soil water mineral content differs according to geography. Then be made batik in each region. First, batik cloth is made in Lasem with a distinctive red color, like red blood, after it was brought to the batik fabric Pekalongan and dibatik in blue, and the fabric is colored brown last Sogan typical in the city of Solo.
Given the means of transport at the time was not as good as now, the three Foreign Batik cloth can be said as one of the batik masterpiece.
7. Batik Morning Afternoon
Batik design started early afternoon there on the Japanese colonial era. At that time because of the difficulty of life, for savings, batik making batik cloth afternoon morning. The batik fabric is made with two different design motif. So if in the morning we use one side of the motif, then in the afternoon we can put on a different motive from the other side of the fabric, so impressed we use 2 different fabrics whereas only 1 sheet of cloth.
Of course now that people rarely wear kebaya fabric (jarik) for day-to-day, but the motive for the morning / afternoon still made in many other batik products. Usually there are made of silk fabric 2 motifs on one sheet of fabric so it can be made two dresses, there are also a scarf that was used to veil, made half plain and half motif. Batik is an alternative to early afternoon has a variety of batik with limited costs.
§ Types Based on Origin Batik is as
o Java Batik
Javanese Batik art is a cultural heritage of Indonesia, especially Java-controlled areas of the Javanese people from generation to generation. Javanese batik motifs have different. This motif is common difference motives that have meaning, the purpose is not just an image but it implies that they can from their ancestors, namely religion animism, dynamism or Hindu and Buddhist. Javanese Batik in many developing regions Solo or commonly known as Solo batik.
§ Types Based Batik technique is as follows:
o Batik Tulis is decorated with fabric textures and patterns of batik by hand. Batik making this type takes approximately 2-3 months.
o Batik Cap is decorated with fabric textures and patterns created with batik cap (usually made of copper). This type of batik-making process takes approximately 2-3 days.
o Batik Painting is the process of making batik by directly drawing on a white cloth.
For more details, we describe how and the tools and materials of manufacture under
A. Batik Tulis
Decorated with fabric textures and patterns of batik by hand. This batik takes approximately 2-3 months.
Ø How to manufacture:
· Prepare the fabric, make pattern on cloth with pencil
· Once the motif is completed, draped fabric in gawangan
· Turn on the burner / brazier. Put night / candle into a pan and heat the pan over low heat until melted perfect evening. Let the fire still smoldering
· Begin by taking a little batik liquid by using a canting night, let me briefly inflatable inflatable-not too hot, then scratched canting by following the existing pattern. Be careful not until evening that the liquid drop on the surface of the fabric as it will results motif
· After all the motives closed the night, then the next process is the process of coloring
· Prepare the dye in a bucket, then dip the cloth into the dye solution with a brush, repeat several times.
· The next stage is the process of batik wax removal by scaling melarod
· The last stage of the process of making batik is the washing and drying process.
Ø Tools and materials:
· Canting -> is a tool for batik canting. Usually made of copper that resembles a bird's beak ends
· Gawangan -> is a place to put a cloth that will . Gawangan be made of wood or bamboo
· Frying Pan -> a small pan to melt the evening or wax. These pans can be made of copper or clay
· Anglo / small stove -> is used to heat the griddle
· Night / wax -> night batik is made from a mixture of different types of materials such as Gum Rosin, fats coconut oil, and paraffin
· Coloring matter -> also called as Wedel or tom
B. Batik Cap
Decorated with fabric textures and patterns created with batik stamp made of copper. This batik only takes approximately 2-3 days.
Ø How to manufacture:
· Mori fabric laid on the table with pedestal underneath using soft materials.
· Night boiled to a temperature of 60-70 degrees Celsius.
· Cap dipped into melted last night but only 2cm away from the bottom of the cap.
· Later in the cloth cap with enough pressure so neat. In this process, liquid night will soak into the pores of the cloth
· Next is the coloring process by dipping the cloth that had been on the stamp into the tank containing the liquid dye.
· Fabrics mori boiled dinner so fluid lost from the fabric attached.
· The process of tasting> coloring> penggodogan repeated if you want to be given a combination of several colors.
· After that, the process of cleansing and enlightenment colors using soda.
· Drying then so neatly ironed.
Ø Tools and materials:
· Candle night
C. Batik Painting
Batik-making process by directly painting on a white cloth.
Ø How to manufacture:
· Prepare a piece of cloth.
· Draw a picture of the pattern on the fabric according own creations,
· Tebali pattern with a liquid wax that has been heated. Use the appropriate size canting pattern. You can use regular canting (traditional) may also use a brush to get the character right.
· Give color using dye techniques or after wax on cloth to dry.
· After staining finishes dry with aerated.
wax on cloth with a dull knife in order mori was not damaged. in this process of course the results are not completely clean out the candles, then do it in a way in the Flatiron in order to really clean.
The means used to remove the wax with an iron bar is as follows:
· Batik fabrics that have been dyed and ready to be released should the candle left in a dry state.
· Prepare a similar tool a dull knife, then thick wax sections attached to the batik fabric with this tool so most candles regardless of fabric.
· Prepare some old newspapers, paper towels and electric iron.
· Place the cloth batik on paper newspapers as a foundation, then place the sheet of tissue paper on the candle to be cleaned. Close the top of the tissue paper with newspaper then such as ironing clothes.
· With ironed the wax will melt because of the heat. The melted wax will stick to the tissue paper. Repeat this until the wax clean job.
Ø Tools and materials:
· Fabrics mori
· Candle night
· Blunt knife
· Former newspaper
· Iron electricity
2.2. BATIK DEVELOPMENT TODAY
Currently batik we encounter in everyday goods around us. Batik patterns and motifs of diverse and interesting can be applied to various types of goods example: clothing, handbags, home decoration, linen, and so forth. With the application of this kind of batik became closer in the community. Not only on the top or on the formal forum. Even batik application on such objects is in the interest of domestic to foreign tourists. This proves that batik is very popular because of its charm and worldwide.
Batik is one of Indonesian culture that is worldwide. rich and interesting motifs. Currently batik has been applied to many everyday objects. So batik became closer in the community.
Indonesian citizen in order to better understand the culture of the country, namely batik. Because batik is a legacy passed down from our ancestors that have preserved its existence is not so easily claimed by other countries.