AN ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS FOUND IN ENGLISH NATIVE SPEAKERS’ CONVERSATION : LCE ENGLISH COURSE CASE
1.1 Background of the Analysis
Communication cannot be separated from the language because language has an important role in human’s life, such as thinking, communicating ideas, and negotiating with the others. Sapir (1921 : 8) says “language is purely human and non instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotional, and desires by means of system of voluntarily produced symbols”. Language has been defined in various ways by linguists and others. Language is primarily an instrument of communication among human beings in a community. Language in its common, pervasive, representative and apparently central manifestation involves oral – aural communication, arbitrary in their association to particular meanings and units and arbitrary in their particular shape for a given language.
Language can be represented by various ways. Generally, language is divided into two, they are : spoken language and written language. Spoken language is a
language where it sounds come out from the speaker’s speech organs, while written language is a language that uses symbols that are called letters to represent the sounds of speech. In spoken and written language, it cannot be separated by grammatical rules. Although it is realized that each language has its own unique system of communication, self- contained within its own structure. Sounds, words, sentences are meaningful within this frame of each language structure and system. Similarly, each language uses its own pattern of arrangement and form for its grammatical meanings. The term grammar means different things to different people. To the grammarian, it has been often meant as the analysis of his own language, or one he has mastered, in order to discover its “ rules” of propriety, that is, what may and may not be said in the particular language. For the general public, grammar has been the study of rules of correctness, that is, rules that claimed to tell the student what he should and should not say in order to speak the language of the socially educated class. According to Lado ( 1961:142), the definition of grammatical structure is the pattern of arrangement of words in sentences and the patterns of arrangement of parts of words into words. Sentences are made up of patterns of arrangement of words group, words, stress, etc. Sentences occur in sequences, and each language has its own system for the ordering of sentences in sequences. Wilson in Rean (1971:102) states grammar of language is the system of devices which carry the structural meanings of that language in speech and writing. This system specifies the way words in a given language are related to each other.
Grammar is still regarded as the most difficult part in a language use. One reason why the analysis of grammar has been difficult and subject to many errors and controvercies is the fact that the same forms operate simultaneously at several levels
of structure. For example: these. It is a part of speech, and a word. It can make the problem for the speakers either the non native- speaker or even the native speaker if they are asked to determine what class of these belongs to although it is known that they are as native speakers of the language but they themselves still regard it as a hard problem and they still tend to make errors in their conversation. Considering about the error, Chomsky (1965) in Tarigan ( 1988:143) says that: “kesalahan yang diakibatkan oleh kurangnya pengetahuan mengenai kaidah – kaidah bahasa, yang disebut oleh Chomsky sebagai factor kompetensi, merupakan penyimpangan – penyimpangan sistematis yang disebabkan pengetahuan pelajar yang sedang berkembang mengenai system bahasa tersebut.” “ errors that are caused by the lack of knowledge about the language rules that is called as a competent factor by Chomsky is systematic errors that are caused by the lack of knowledge of the students about the language that is being learned.” ( translated by the writer ) While Dulay (1982) in Tarigan ( 1988 : 139) says that : “ penggunaan istilah error atau kesalahan untuk mengacu pada setiap penyimpangan dan norma baku performansi bahasa tanpa mengindahkan / memperdulikan ciri- ciri atau penyebab penyimpangan tersebut.” “ the use of error term refers to each of the errors and norms of the language performance without caring about the cause of those errors.” ( translated by the writer ) In this thesis, the writer wants to analyze the grammatical errors, so the writer can conclude that grammatical errors are the patterns of arrangement of words in sentences and the pattern of arrangement of parts of words into words that are not appropriate with the pattern and rules that have been determined in a language that is being used.
Kaplan (1989:1) says that grammar is divided into two. They are prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar. Prescriptive grammar is the rules governing how a language is supposed to be used. While descriptive grammar is to describe the grammatical system of a language uncounciously know, which enables them to speak and understand the language. In descriptive grammar, the interest is not what should be, but in what is the language that people use all the time, the whole range of different varieties they use in their normal everyday lives, including the varieties they use in their formal careful speech and writing. Prescriptive grammar only wants to create a standard norm that must be respected by the speakers when they use a language because in Prescriptive grammar, there is a value judgment whether the language that we use is right or wrong according to the grammatical of the language that we use. Yule (1985:72) in Cahyono ( 1995: 164) clarifies that : “ pendekatan preskriptif merupakan pengkajian bahasa yang berpandangan bahwa terdapat ketentuan – ketentuan mutlak mengenai betul salah dalam bahasa dan tujuan analisis bahasa adalah menyusun norma – norma pemakaian bahasa.” “ prescriptive approach is the study of language that said that there are absolute norms about right or wrong in using the language and the purpose of the analysis is to arrange the norms of the language that is being used.” ( translated by the writer ) It is known that English language has many kinds of grammar, such as the use of tenses , parts of speech, sentence, etc. for this case, the writer is interested in analyzing the grammatical errors which in it include the use of tenses and parts of speech. The definition of tense according to Mas’ud (1987:19) : “ tenses adalah bentuk dari kata kerja ( verba) yang menunjukkan :
a. waktu terjadinya suatu peristiwa / perbuatan
b. tingkat kesempurnaan suatu perbuatan pada waktu dilakukan atau peristiwa yang terjadi ( akan dilakukan, sedang terjadi,baru saja dimulai atau selesai dilakukan).”
“ tense is a kind of Verb forms that shows :
a. the time of an event
b. the perfection level of an event that happens or done ( will be done, is being done, has just been done, or was done ).” ( translated by the writer )
Concerning about the Tense, in English language, there are three kinds of Tenses, they are :
a. Present Tense
b. Past Tense
c. Future Tense
Each of those Tenses above can be divided again into some, such as Present tense can be divided into Present continuous tense, present perfect tense, present perfect continuous tense, etc. so do past tense and future tense. While parts of speech is the function of words in a sentence. In English language, there are eight kinds that can be included as parts of speech, they are:
Based on the title of this thesis, the native speakers who will be the subjects of the analysis are the native speakers who are in LCE English Course. Here is a brief description of LCE.
LCE ( Language and Cultural Exchange ) is an English course that is at 79 Sei Mencirim Medan. It is established by Nexus Foundation. LCE is one of English Courses located in Medan that provides the native speakers as the teachers whom will teach the learners, for this case, Indonesians about English language. LCE has accepted the certificates about the progress of its programmes twice in a year. And for the first time, LCE is given the permission to keep on its programme for one year, as usual, it only receives the permission only for three months.LCE has been active as one of the Official English Course since June 2009. LCE is managed by the chairperson whose name is Ikke Tresiani. She graduated from Educational English Department of Satya Wacana University in Java, and now, she is still taking her master in Holistic Child Development Institute of Penang. LCE has done many activities. It has opened the class for the students who want to be able to speak English fluently since June 2009, besides that, it has also opened the speaking clubs for the members who do not want to take the class, but in the contrary, they only just want to practice speaking with the native speakers there. Movie Nite is one of its classes that offered by LCE that is held twice in a month. And then, there is also a discussion or exhibition or any workshops like Job interview workshop, personality workshop, etc, especially when there are some guests who have just come to Indonesia. Until this time, the teachers who teach in LCE are the native speakers who come from Alabama, Texas, Tennese, etc. although they are American English, but there is only a little bit difference between America and British English. However, the grammatical rules that are used are almost the same with the British English.
Besides that, LCE also accepts the exchange students from abroad, because LCE not only as a course which teach the non native speakers about English but also it is as a place for the foreigners who want to learn Indonesia language and the culture of Indonesia because LCE cooperates with Global Education. Therefore, in LCE, the students especially the non native speakers can take and give. Why the writer say take and give because the non native speakers not only grasp the knowledge from the native speakers, in reverse, the native spaeakers can share the knowledge about Indonesia either the language or the culture with the non native speakers although they have their own teacher who will teach them Indonesia language in that course, but at least they can share to assist them when they have duties or jobs about Indonesia Course from their teacher in LCE.
1.2 Scope of the Analysis
In analyzing this case of the thesis, the writer focuses on the grammatical errors, especially the prescriptive grammar that contains about the use of Tenses in English language and parts of speech in English language and the writer only concerns with the native speakers who are teaching in each of English classes that offered by LCE English Course.
1.3 Problems of the Analysis
Concerning the title of this thesis, there are four questions appeared, they are:
1. What tenses errors will be found in native speakers’ conversation in LCE English course?
2. What parts of speech errors will be found in native speakers’ conversation in LCE English Course?
3. What tenses errors will be dominant found in native speakers’ conversation in LCE English Course?
4. What parts of speech errors will be dominant found in native speakers’ conversation in LCE English Course?
1.4 Objectives of the Analysis
In answering the problems of the analysis, the writer gives four objectives of the analysis. They are :
1. To find out the tenses errors in native speakers’s conversation in LCE English Course.
2. To find out the parts of speech errors in native speakers’ conversation in LCE English Course.
3. To find out the dominant tenses errors in native speakers’s conversation in LCE English Course.
4. To find out the dominant parts of speech errors in native speakers’ conversation in LCE English Course.
1.5 Significance of the Analysis
This thesis can be a source of information in order to show the grammatical errors and give the right forms of the errors that are found from
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